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The Media

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    1. The Media Chapter 10

    2. Media is Transition New importance of Internet Use by Obama Campaign Yes We Can video had 17 Million hits. Social networking Internet advertising

    3. Fourth Estate The Media, especially the news media have been called the fourth estate or the fourth branch of government Some Terms: Mass MediaThat media that reaches large audiencesradio, television, magazines News MediaThat part of the media (or particular programs) that focuses primarily on the news as opposed to entertainment.

    4. Mass Media Mass media disseminates messages to a large and often heterogeneous audience. Messages are often simplified, stereotyped and predictable. The Mass media cant afford to tick people off by being too partisan. cable has allowed more ideological stations to emerge. Internet has exploded the number of news sources

    5. Where People Get News Until 1960 most people got news from newspapers. Today most people get their news from television rather than newspapers. Problem: Because of the format, TV spends less time on each story and tends to go less in depth. The best quality news is still in the papers. The Internet is increasingly becoming a source for news. Outlet for newspapers and television

    6. The Impact of Television Television has had a dramatic impact on politics and elections. Stories reported more quickly and with less development Puts more pressure on leaders to respond quickly Decreases the power of individual outlets Increases the power of the President

    7. Impact on Elections Television changes the way candidates campaign Ads more important than news coverage Image on TV is critical Sound bites Postcards Rapid Response

    8. Impact on Elections Television affects what types of candidates will be successful. Must be telegenic Must have a good voice Image consultants now common

    9. Issue Ads Adds put on by various interest groups to get their message out. Often targeted at one candidate or another, although they are not allowed to specifically call for the election or defeat of anyone. Recent campaign finance reform laws no longer allow undisclosed spending and limit the types of adds that can be run near the date of the election.

    10. Economics of Television News Over the last 15 years the network news broadcasts have lost their dominant position More and more people get their news from one of the 24-hour news stations. Much more competition in the news business for viewers and ad revenues. Thus, more pressure to be first with a story and to make stories seem breaking

    11. Persistence of Radio In the 1930s radio had the role that TV does today. TV has displaced radio but still has a place. Talk Radio. Major source of opinion pieces, especially conservative NPR Radio also serves niche markets such as Hispanics, Asians, etc.

    12. Newspapers Most in-depth reporting Only one-in-five read. Major newspapers suffering severed financial problems. People watch TV People read newspaper for free online People turning to other online sources. Best reporting still done by newspapers Key papers: New York Times, Washington Post, Wall St. Journal, Chicago Tribune, LA Times.

    13. Explosion of Internet In last 15 years Internet has exploded as a factor in politics. Major source of news for many Changed the way candidates raise money and connect with voters Changed the way voters approach elections.

    14. The Web Three major ways used in politics. Candidate home pages where people can find out about the candidate. To mobilize voters on a particular issue, candidate or cause. Fund RaisingThe web has become a potent source of fund raising from small donors. Howard Dean broke new ground with the way he was able to raise millions of dollars from ordinary Americans.

    15. Magazines 10,000 magazines today. Newsweek, Time, and US News and World Report focus entirely on current events and public policy and are highly read and very influential. Combined 10,000 circulation.

    16. Evolution of Newspapers Early newspapers covered politics exclusively Early years of countryvery partisan. Objective journalism not a priority. Jacksonian revolution Less partisan More soft news Funded by adds Rise of Objective Journalism

    17. The Impact of Broadcasting Radio and then television nationalized the news. Gave politicians more direct access to the people. FDR and his Fireside Chats Impact on politics More power to the president. More emphasis on quality of voice and personal appearance.

    18. Investigatory Journalism Investigatory Journalism arose in the progressive era. Muck-Rakers. Now major function of journalism at the highest level. Woodward and BernsteinWatergate. Seymore Hersh of the NYTPentagon Papers detailing the background of the Vietnam War.

    19. Media Conglomerates Many conglomerates corporations that own numerous radio and television stations plus newspapers. Gannett Corp-87 newspapers and 21 TV stations FTC has loosened its restrictions, so that in some markets one company dominates all three major sources of news. This is a concern to many Radio and television are regulated by the FTC. Why? Until the 1980s, fairness doctrine Repealed starting in 1980

    20. The New Mediator in American Politics Media connects electorate Media has taken over some of role of political parties of informing voters Media has reduced the power of political parties Politicians dont need party as much Media is both spokesman for people to gov. and gov. to people.

    21. The Media and Public Opinion Many fear that television has too much influence over shaping public opinion. Clearly has some influence, but its ability to warp public opinion is overstated.

    22. Factors that limit Media Influence on Public Opinion Political Socialization By adulthood most people have a clear ideology Not open-minded and will discount information that they disagree with. Selectivity People choose media outlets and programs that present a viewpoint similar to their own. People hear and focus more on facts that support their viewpoints

    23. Factors that limit Media Influence on Public Opinion Needs People access the media for a lot of different reasons. Many arent paying attention to the news. Recall and Comprehension People are inundated with so much info that a lot isnt retained Audience fragmentation Are so many news outlets that no one outlet has monopoly. No monolithic message.

    24. Media Bias? Each side claims the other is biased Conservatives: Media is predominantly eastern, elite, liberal and select stories accordingly. But, most outlets have a number of reporters and editors who balance each other out.

    25. Media Bias? Liberals: newspapers and networks are large corporations supported by advertisers that are conservative. But.most media corporations insulate the editorial side from the business side.

    26. Media Bias One source of bias: cross-over between politics and the media. Many of who have been in government ultimately become members of the media. Some argue that too friendly to those they cover. But, gives them unique perspective and access.

    27. Media Bias? Bottom Line: Studies show that media is effective at shaping what public thinks ABOUT, but not very effective at telling public what to think.

    28. Media and Public Opinion Media does shape public opinion through both agenda setting and issue framing Agenda Setting: Process of deciding which issues to cover and how much time to give to them. But, media does not have free reign. Presidents bully pulpit Viewer interest and desire

    29. Media and Public Opinion Issue Framing: Issue Framing is essentially spin. The way an issue is framed effects the way it is perceived. Media generally on balance tries to frame neutrally, while parties try to spin stories to their advantage.

    30. Media and Elections Coverage is greater in national races than local races. More coverage, the more diverse it is. How the Media affects elections Choice of candidates. Have to be media-friendly and telegenic. Scrounging for coverage. Coverage is so important that candidates without money have to be creative to find ways to get free coverage.

    31. Media and Elections Media Consultants Now most major candidates use media consultants Advise on how to best portray a candidate through the media Clothes, language, backdrops Issues that will play well Run focus groups Have taken on the role of grooming candidates that used to be played by parties

    32. Media and Elections Campaign Coverage The Horse Race Major criticism of media is that it reports much more on the horse race aspects of elections than substantive issues. Not enough time spent on reporting what the candidates are saying and stance on issues. But, viewers are more interested in horse race. Civic Journalism: effort to find out what the voters care about and write stories from their point of view.

    33. Media and Elections Negative Advertising Inevitable in modern politics It is perceived to work While negative view of both candidates goes up, victims goes up more. What does negative mean? Effects: Races with lots of negative ads have lower voter turnout. Moderates turned off the most.

    34. Election Night Reporting In 1980 the networks called the presidential election for Reagan before the polls had closed on west coast. Depressed voter turnout Now. Wont report on overall winner until polls closed everywhere. Exit Polls: Polls of voters leaving polling places Used to predict winner. Dramatic failure in Florida in 2000. Now media is much more cautious about using them unless clearly outside the margin of error.

    35. Political Institutions and the News Media President is the star of political coverage Almost everything Pres. does is reported. Lots of power to shape agenda. Office of Communications works full time to shape the presidents message Congress is less able to shape the media. Does not speak with one voice Is divided between two houses and two parties Less able to tailor schedule to help the media. Gives Pres. a big advantage in competition for power.