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Chlorine. Sodium. Sodium chloride. 2 H 2. O 2. 2 H 2 O. +. Reactants. Reaction. Products. Nucleus. Protons (+ charge) determine element. Electrons (– charge) form negative cloud and determine chemical behavior. Neutrons (no charge) determine isotope. Atom. Cloud of negative

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  1. Chlorine Sodium Sodium chloride

  2. 2 H2 O2 2 H2O + Reactants Reaction Products

  3. Nucleus Protons (+ charge) determine element Electrons (– charge) form negative cloud and determine chemical behavior Neutrons (no charge) determine isotope Atom

  4. Cloud of negative charge (2 electrons) Electrons Nucleus (a) (b)

  5. (a) A ball bouncing down a flight of stairs provides an analogy for energy levels of electrons. Third shell (highest energy level in this model) Energy absorbed Second shell (higher energy level) First shell (lowest energy level) Energy lost Atomic nucleus (b)

  6. Electron orbitals

  7. First shell Neon, with two filled Shells (10 electrons) Second shell (a) Electron distribution diagram First shell Second shell y x z 1s orbital 2s orbital Three 2p orbitals (b) Separate electron orbitals 1s, 2s, and 2p orbitals (c) Superimposed electron orbitals

  8. Helium 2He Atomic number Hydrogen 1H 2 He 4.00 Mass number Element symbol First shell Electron distribution diagram Lithium 3Li Beryllium 4Be Boron 5B Nitrogen 7N Fluorine 9F Oxygen 8O Carbon 6C Neon 10Ne Second shell Sodium 11Na Magnesium 12Mg Aluminum 13Al Sulfur 16S Argon 18Ar Silicon 14Si Chlorine 17Cl Phosphorus 15P Third shell

  9. Ionic bond – + Electronic transfer forms ions Cl– Chloride ion (an anion) Na+ Sodium ion (a cation) Na Sodium atom Cl Chlorine atom

  10. Na+ Cl–

  11. Hydrogen atoms (2 H) Hydrogen molecule (H2)

  12. Single covalent bond Double covalent bond

  13. Lewis Dot Structure and Structural Formula Space- Filling Model Electron Distribution Diagram Name and Molecular Formula (a) Hydrogen (H2) (b) Oxygen (O2) (c) Water (H2O) (d) Methane (CH4)

  14. – O H H + + H2O

  15. + – Water (H2O) + Hydrogen bond – Ammonia (NH3) + + +

  16. Four hybrid orbitals z Three p orbitals s orbital x y Tetrahedron (a) Hybridization of orbitals Hybrid-Orbital Model (with ball-and-stick model superimposed) Space-Filling Model Ball-and-Stick Model Unbonded Electron pair Water (H2O) Methane (CH4) (b) Molecular-shape models

  17. Nitrogen Carbon Sulfur Hydrogen Natural endorphin Oxygen Morphine (a) Structures of endorphin and morphine Natural endorphin Morphine Endorphin receptors Brain cell (b) Binding to endorphin receptors

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