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Na-Sodium. Na2O- Sodium Oxide and NaCl - Sodium Chloride At standard condition- Solid Bonding and Structure: Ionic lattice Electrical Conductivity: Good conductor of electricity in molten state. Magnesium Oxide. 2Mg + O₂  2MgO Heating Magnesium in air

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na sodium
Na-Sodium
  • Na2O- Sodium Oxide and NaCl- Sodium Chloride
  • At standard condition- Solid
  • Bonding and Structure: Ionic lattice
  • Electrical Conductivity: Good conductor of electricity in molten state.
magnesium oxide
Magnesium Oxide
  • 2Mg + O₂  2MgO
  • Heating Magnesium in air
  • Physical State = Solid white powder
    • Forms giant ionic lattice and strong ionic bonds hold the ions together
  • Conducts electricity when molten
    • However, melting point is very high (2850°C)
magnesium chloride
Magnesium Chloride
  • Mg + Cl₂  MgCl₂
  • Physical State = Solid
    • Held together in a giant ionic lattice with strong ionic bonds
  • Conducts electricity
    • Ions dissociate when in molten state
    • Melting point is 714°C
aluminium oxide al o
Aluminium Oxide (Al₂O₃)

Physical Properties:

  • Solid under standard conditions, with metallic properties
  • Has strong bonds, ionic bonding (ionic lattice)
  • However, it is more covalent than usual. (All bonds are covalent to a degree)
  • NOTE: Aluminium Oxide is amphoteric!
slide6

Electrical Conductivity:

  • When melted, it is a good conductor
  • Ionic lattice breaks, ions become free flowing
  • Has free moving charged particles, conducts easily

Ions are held together tightly when in an ionic lattice.

aluminium chloride al cl
Aluminium Chloride (Al₂Cl₆)

Physical Properties:

  • Physical property changes depending on the type of bonding
  • Can either be bonded through an ionic lattice, or a covalent bond
  • Empirical formula (AlCl₃), ionic lattice (has a lot of covalent properties though), is a solid
  • Aluminium and Chlorine do not have a strong bond
  • Al₂Cl₆, covalent bond (partly due to polarization).
  • Sublimes from AlCl₃ to Al₂Cl₆ at 180°C (gas), turns to liquid at 190°C and 2 atmospheric pressure.
slide8

Electrical Conductivity:

  • Electrical conductivity is poor (Al₂Cl₆)
  • Some electrical conductivity since there is still some ionic bonding left.
silicon

Silicon

By TheOnlyFrankie

high m p and b p
HIGH M.P and B.P
  • 16100c
  • 22300c
why liquid
Why Liquid?
  • Intermolecular (van der Waals) forces only
sicl 4 2h 2 o sio 2 4hci
SiCl4+2H2O ---> SiO2+4HCI
  • Acidic
  • React wildly with water (therefore It fumes with moist air)
  • Product -Hydrogen Chloride
oxides
Oxides
  • P4O6 ( Tetraphosphorushexaoxide)
  • P4O10 (TetraphosphorusDecaoxide)
p 4 o 6
P4O6
  • Crystalline Solid
  • One Phosphorus atom bonds with 3 oxygen atoms.
  • Boiling Point: 173°c
  • Cant conduct electricity
p 4 o 10
P4O10
  • Crystalline Solid
  • One atom of phosphorus bonds with 3 oxygen atom
  • Boiling Point: 605°c
  • Cant conduct electricity
chlorides
Chlorides
  • PCl3 (Phosphorus Trichloride)
  • PCl5 ( Phosphorus Pentachloride)
pcl 3
PCL3
  • Liquid
  • It has weak Van der Waal force
  • One atom of phosphorus bonds with 3 chloride atoms
  • Cant conduct electricity ( covalent bond)
pcl 5
PCl5
  • Crystalline Solid
  • Cannot conduct electricity
oxides so 2 so 3
Oxides (SO2, SO3)
  • covalent small gaseous molecules
  • Physical state is gaseous because covalent bonding has weak intermolecular forces between the molecules.
  • Sulfur dioxide does not conduct electricity because covalent bonding has no charges to produce current.
chlorides s 2 cl 2
Chlorides (S2Cl2)
  • covalent small liquid molecules
  • Physical state is liquid because covalent bonding has weak intermolecular forces between the molecules.
  • Sulfur chloride does not conduct electricity because covalent bonding has no charges to produce current.
chlorine properties
Chlorine properties
  • Oxide:
    • Creates Cl20, ClO2, Cl2O6, Cl207
    • Creates covalent bonds
    • Electronegativity difference between chlorine and oxygen is 0.28
  • Chloride:
    • Only forms Cl2
properties of oxides bonding
Properties of oxides: Bonding
  • Covalent bonds are form as the electronegativity difference is small so it is not polar so there are weak inter molecular forces

Cl

O

Electronegativity: 3.44

Electronegativity: 3.16

properties of oxides physical states
Properties of oxides: Physical states
  • Cl20 and Cl02 are gases as they have weak intermolecular forces and have a low atomic mass
  • Cl206 and Cl2O7 are liquids as they have covalent bonds and have a higher atomic mass
properties of oxides electrical conductivity and acidity
Properties of oxides: electrical conductivity and acidity
  • In the liquid state they are not electrically conductive as they do not have freely moving ions.
  • Chlorine forms an acid when it reacts with water.

Cl207+H2O2HClO4

properties of chlorine
Properties of chlorine
  • Chlorine bonds with itself to form Cl2
  • It has covalent bonds as the electronegativity difference is 0

Cl

Cl

Electronegativity: 3.16

Electronegativity: 3.16

bonding change across period 3
Bonding change across period 3
  • Group 1 to 3 are ionic bonding
  • Group 4 to 7 are covalent bonding
  • Group 4 is giant structure
  • Group 5 to 7 are small molecules
physical states across period 3
Physical states across period 3
  • Group 1 to 5 are solid
  • Group 6 is gaseous
  • Group 7 is gas/liquid