Unit 1: Native America and the Age of Exploration TSSBAT *Understand how the development of ideas impact exploration *Analyze motives and successes and failures of European exploration *Describe the contributions of significant explorers *Analyze Spain’s conquest of Aztec and Inca Empires
Kennewick Man • The identity of the first Americans is an emotive issue for American Indians, who believe their ancestors were the first to inhabit the Americas. • Controversy erupted after skeletal remains were found in Kennewick, Washington, in 1996. This skeleton, estimated to be 9,000 years old, had a long cranium and narrow face—features typical of people from Europe, the Near East or India—rather than the wide cheekbones and rounder skull of an American Indian. • A coalition of Indian tribes, however, said that if Kennewick Man was 9,000 years old, he must be their ancestor, no matter what he looked like. Invoking a U.S. federal law that provides for the return of Native American remains to their living descendants, the tribes demanded a halt to all scientific study and the immediate return of the skeleton for burial in a secret location.
Why Migrate? Then and Now • Lets name some reasons why early people might pack up everything and start moving • What are some reasons why people migrate today?
Radio-Carbon Dating • Used by archaeologists to date living organisms • Compares ratios of carbon and radioactive carbon. • We know radioactive carbon has a half-life of 5700 years.
Anasazi, or Ancient Pueblo Climate change agricultural failure Archaeological finds of dismembered skeletons, strong evidence of cannibalism. Best known for their stone, adobe dwellings on cliffs. Their style seen today in the Southwest
Natives by Group Incan, Aztec, Mayan Iroquois, Cherokee, Sioux, Nez Timucua, Apalachee, Ais, Jeagas, Tequesta
Incans • City of Machu Picchu discovered by Hiram Bingham in 1911 • At their peak, had over 9 million people • Known for building roads and bridges • Lived in mountainous land, so had to build terraces for farming
Mayans • Theocracy – Priests ruled • Developed 365 day calendar • Developed hieroglyphics
Aztecs • Military Empire – Didn’t exert total control over conquered lands, but expected tributes to be paid. This made the empire rather diverse • Utilized human sacrifice to please gods • Also used terraces for agricultureFamilies within cities had their own small garden farms • The Nahuatl [nah-waht-l] language is today spoken by 1.5 million people, mostly in mountainous areas in the states of central Mexico.
Tequesta Did not practice any form of farming. However, they were skilled fishers In 1513, Juan Ponce de Leon stopped by the South Florida Coast. Menendez set up a missionary, but this didn’t last.
Jeagas (YAY-gahs) • The Jeaga inhabited present-day Palm Beach County. • Jonathan Dickson, who survived a shipwreck on the coast near Jeaga land in 1698, described them as "fierce and bloody." • The Jeaga depended on the sea for food. • Had 2000 members at their peak. • Built mounds just west of Boynton Beach
Timucua • The Timucua lived in large circular houses with palm-thatched roofs. • Frequently, they built a wall of tall wooden poles around their villages for protection against attack. • Like most Native Americans, the Timucua had no written language.
Apalachee • Located in Florida’s panhandle, now Lousiana. Has 300 members. Muskogean language. • Grew corn, beans and squash • The Apalachee played a ball game described in detail by Spaniards in the 17th century. That description, however, was written as part of a campaign by Father Juan de Paiva, priest at the mission of San Luis de Talimali, to have the game banned, and some of the practices described may have been exaggerated. • The game was embedded in ritual practices which Father Pavia regarded as heathen superstitions. • Without farming, could they have spent time playing the game?
Ais • Located around the St. Lucie River inlet to Cape Canaveral. • Spoke the Muskogean [muhs-koh-gee-uhn] language
Apache • Nomadic tribe • Lived off of the buffalo Apachean tribes ca. 18th century: WA – Western Apache, N – Navajo, Ch – Chiricahua, M – Mescalero, J – Jicarilla, L – Lipan, Pl – Plains Apache
Iroquois • Most significant tribe in North American history • Women chose leaders • Farmed corn, beans, and fished. • At their peak, ruled from Quebec to Kentucky • 20,000 members in their Federation • Established Iroquois League as government structure.
Cherokee • European epidemics introduced into the southeastern United States in 1540 by the Desoto expedition are estimated to have killed at least 75% of the original native population. • How much the Cherokee suffered from this disaster in unknown, but their population in 1674 was about 50,000. A series of smallpox epidemics (1729, 1738, and 1753) cut this in half, and itremained fairly stable at about 25,000 until their removal to Oklahoma during the 1830s.
Cherokee Con’t • The American Civil War was the next disaster and cost the Cherokee 25% of their population. No other group of Americans, red or white, suffered as severely during this conflict. • The 1990 census listed 308,132 persons (15,000 full-blood) who identified themselves as Cherokee. Of these, 95,435 were concentrated in eastern Oklahoma while 10,114 eastern Cherokee lived on or near the North Carolina reservation. • Cherokee tribal governments have fairly liberal membership standards, and some estimates exceed 370,000, which would make the Cherokee the largest Native American group in the United States.
Sioux • Dakota War of 1862 • Red Clould’s War aka Bozeman War • Great Sioux War of 1876 – 1877 • Wounded Knee MassacreDecember 29th, 1890. 500 US troops had orders to transport the tribe to Omaha, NEUsed 4 artillery gunsThis was the last battle
Navajo • Largest tribe in the US with 300,098 members.
Nez Perce • Nez Perce War, 1877. • Their lands were found suitable for cattle grazing. • They fought the US army in several battles, winning every one of them. • They eventually settled in Montana. • Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were the first to encounter these people.
Just to be sure… • NomadsAgriculture Civilization • Era vs. Period • Hieroglyphics • Adobe • Bering Strait • Primary vs. Secondary Source
Motives for Exploration • God, Gold, Glory • Cultural • Political • Economic
New Technology in Exploration • Astrolabe • Caravel – Ship with 3 sails • Better maps.
Northwest Passage • The Treaty of Tordesillas divided the Americas between Spain and Portugal. • It didn’t allow claims by other nations—so England, France, and the Netherlands ignored the treaty. • England and France wanted to find a shortcut to Asia for trade, Cabot, Cartier, etc.
Columbian Exchange • Exploration brought together two parts of the globe that previously had no contact. • This contact exchange of plants and animals across the Atlantic. • This is became known as Columbian Exchange.
7 cities of Gold • Mythical cities among Spanish explorers. • Cibola
Giovanni da Verrazano • Italian explorer for the French crown
Henry Hudson • Was sent by merchants to find the Northwest passage to China.
Ferdinand Magellan • Portuguese explorer • First to circumnavigate the world.