Constraints on feedback from deep field observations with sauron and vimos
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Constraints on feedback from deep field observations with SAURON and VIMOS. IFU observations of the high-z Universe. Joris Gerssen. Overview. Until a decade ago only extreme objects were known in the distant universe

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Constraints on feedback from deep field observations with sauron and vimos

Constraints on feedback from deep field observations with SAURON and VIMOS

IFU observations of the high-z Universe

Joris Gerssen


  • Until a decade ago only extreme objects were known in the distant universe

  • Since then photometric redshift surveys and narrow band surveys identified ( at z ~2 to ~4)

    • Lyman Break Galaxies

    • Ly-alpha galaxies

  • Observational constraints on galaxy formation and evolution

    • e.g. morphology, star formation history, luminosty functions, etc.

Ifu observations of the high z universe

  • Among the drivers behind this advancement are

    • The 10m class telescopes and instruments

    • Hubble Space Telescope

    • Theoretical understanding of structure formation

  • Integral Field Spectropscopy (IFS) is a recent development with great potential to further galaxy evolution studies

Integral field spectroscopy
Integral Field Spectroscopy

Data cube: f(x, y, lambda)



  • MUSE


  • PMAS

Typical properties:

Field-of-View few (tens) of arcsec

Spectral resolution: R ~200 to ~2500

High redshift science with ifus
High-redshift science with IFUs

  • (e.g. list of MUSE science drivers)

  • Formation and evolution of galaxies:

    • High-z Ly- emitters

    • Feedback

    • Luminosity functions (PPAK, VIRUS)

    • Reionization

    • ...


  • A longstanding problem in galaxy formation is to understand how gas cools to form galaxies

  • Discrepancy between observed baryon fraction (~8%) and predicted fraction (> 50% )

  • To solve this “cosmic cooling crisis” the cooling of gas needs to be balanced by the injection of energy (SNe/AGN)


  • Galactic outflows driven by AGN and/or SNe

    • Resolve discrepancy between observed and predicted baryon fraction

    • Terminate star formation

    • Enrich IGM

NGC 6240 (ULIRG)

M82 (starburst)

Ifu deep field observations
IFU Deep Field Observations

  • Deep SAURON & VIMOS observations of blank sky

  • But in practice centered on QSOs/high-z galaxies

    • observe extended Ly- halo emission

    • serendipitous detections

Sauron deep fields
SAURON Deep Fields

  • The SAURON IFU is optimized for the study of internal kinematics in early type galaxies

  • DF observations of: SSA22a, SSA22b, HB89

  • Redshift range 2.9 - 3.3 (4900 - 5400 Angstrom)

  • Texp ~10 hours

  • FoV: 33 x 41 arcsec, R ~ 1500

Ifu observations of the high z universe

SAURON observations: overview





Ssa22b z 3 09
SSA22b (z = 3.09)

Wilman, Gerssen, Bower, Morris, Bacon, de Zeeuw & Davies (Nature, 14 July 2005)

VolView rendering

Ly distribution
Ly- distribution

1.0 arcsec = 7.6 kpc

Line profiles
Line profiles

  • Emission lines ~ 1000 km/s wide

  • Emission peaks shift by a few 100 km/s

  • Absorption minima differ by at most a few tens of km/s

  • Ly alpha is resonant scattered, naturally double peaked

  • Yet, absorption by neutral gas is a more straighforward explanation

Ssa22b results
SSA22b results

  • Assuming shock velocities of several 100 km/s

  • Shell travels ~100 kpc in a few 108yr

  • Shell can cool to ~104 K in this time

    • Implied by the Voigt profile b parameter

    • Required to be in photoionization equilibrium

  • Implied shell mass of 1011 M

  • Kinetic energy of the shell ~1058 erg

  • About 1060 erg available (IMF)

  • Superwind model provides a consistent, and energetically feasible description

Comparison with ssa22a
Comparison with SSA22a

  • SSA22a

    • Kinematical structure more irregular

    • Luminous sub-mm source

  • Suggests that a similar outflow may have just begun

  • Probe a wider range of galaxies:

    • SCUBA galaxy (observed last year)

    • Radio galaxy (observed one last week)

    • LBG (a few hours last week)

Sinfoni observations of ssa22b
SINFONI observations of SSA22b

Constrain the stellar properties

Link them to the superwind

Scheduled for P77 (B)

Foerster Schreiber et al.

Serendipitous emitters
Serendipitous emitters

  • The correlation of Ly-alpha emitters with the distribution of intergalactic gas provides another route to observationally constrain feedback

  • Based on Adelberger et al (2003) who find that the mean transmission increases close to a QSO

    • This result is derived from 3 Ly- sources only

Mean igm transmission
Mean IGM transmission

z ~ 2.5

z ~ 3

Adelberger et al. 2003

Adelberger et al. 2005

Advantage of ifus
Advantage of IFUs

  • IFUs cover a smaller FOV then narrow band imaging, but

    • IFUs are better matched to Ly-alpha line width

    • Do not require spectroscopic follow-up

    • Directly probe the volume around a central QSO

  • Thus, IFUs should be more efficient than narrow band surveys

Ifu observations
IFU observations

  • Search the data cube for emitters

  • Use the QSO spectrum to measure the gas distribution

    • Likely require the UVES spectra

  • Available:

    • One SAURON data cube

    • 2 of 4 VIMOS IFU data cubes

SAURON example: HB89 +1738+350

Ifu observations of the high z universe


z = 3.92, Texp = 9 hours

LR mode

Search by eye for candidates
Search by eye for candidates

Need to identify/apply an automated procedure

Detection algorithms
Detection algorithms

  • Matched kernel search

    • Many false detections

  • IDL algorithm (van Breukelen & Jarvis 2005)

  • FLEX: X-ray based technique (Braito et al. 2005)

  • ELISE-3D: sextractor based (Foucaud 2005)

Van breukelen jarvis mnras 2005
van Breukelen & Jarvis (MNRAS 2005)

  • Similar data set:

    • Radio galaxy at z = 2.9

    • same instrumental set up

    • similar exposure time

  • Yet, they find more (14) and brighter Ly- emitters

    • Using an automated source finder

In progress
In progress

  • A direct comparison with the van Breukelen results

    • Obtained their data from ESO archive

    • And reduced and analyzed it with our procedures

  • Preliminary results are in reasonably good agreement

    • ‘Our’ data appears somwhat more noisy

    • Find their emitters and their new type-II quasar (Jarvis et al 2005)

Preliminary results
Preliminary results

  • Number density of Ly alpha emitters agrees with model predictions (fortuitous)

    • The VIMOS fields contain 5 - 14 emitters

    • Models (Deliou 2005) predict 9 in a similar volume

  • IFUs are sensitive to at least a few 10E-18 erg/s/cm2


  • IFUs provide a uniquely powerful way to study the haloes around high redshift proto-galaxies

  • Volumetric data are an efficient way to search for Ly-alpha galaxies

    • An alternative method to constrain feedback

  • IFUs are a very valuable new tool to study the formation and evolution of galaxies