Physical conditions of the shocked regions in collimated outflows of planetary nebulae. Angels Riera (UPC). OUTLINE. Identification: morphology and kinematics. Physical conditions in shocked regions of PNe: NGC 6543, NGC 7009, IC 4634.
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Angels Riera (UPC)
NGC 6543, NGC 7009, IC 4634.
Small-scale structures which differ from their surroundings in emission line spectra (low-excitation spectra) and velocities.
Pair or string of knots, jet-like structures which appear in opposite symmetrical pairs, or point-symmetrical features.
The first high-velocity collimated outflow in a PN was found by Gieseking, Becker & Solf (1985) in NGC 2392, Vexp = 200 km s-1
Jets and “ansae”:
NGC 6543 (Miranda & Solf 1992): Vexp = 130 (250) km s-1
Hubble 4 (López, Steffen & Meaburn 1997): Vexp= 200 km s-1
MyCn 18 (O’Connor et al. 2000): V in excess of 500 km s-1
NGC 7009 (Fernández, Monteiro & Schwarz 2004) : proper motion measurements Vexp = 115 km s-1
Reviews: López (2000, 2002), Gonçalves (2004), Corradi (2006).
Balick et al. (1987, 1993, 1994)
Morphology of jets or knots (axial symmetry).
Sizes = few x 1016 cm. Doppler shifts ± 25 – 50 km s-1.
Point-symmetric pair or string of knots.
Sub-class of jet-like structures (moderate to high expansion velocities).
associated with collimated outflows
Studies of the Physical Conditions of shock-excited features outflows of planetary nebulae.Balick et al. (1993, 1994), Hajian et al. (1997), Balick et al. (1998),Gonçalves et al. (2003), Perinotto et al. (2004).
Credit: NASA, ESA,HEIC, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA).
Figure fromBalick et al. (1998)
Hα, [N II] and [O III] composite pictures of A, A’.
Guerrero et al. (in preparation)
K 4-47 outflows of planetary nebulae
Figure from Gonçalves et al. (2004)
Figure from Vázquez et al. (2000)
Figure from Gonçalves et al. (2004)
STIS data of NGC 7662 (Perinotto et al. 2004): FLIERs are denser than the nebular gas (104 cm-3); Te [N II] from 9800 to 12000 k.
NGC 7009 denser than the nebular gas (10
Δ denser than the nebular gas (10M1-92, M2-56, OH238.1+4.2 Trammell. Dinerstein & Goodrich (1993), Sánchez Contreras et al. (2000)
□ Hen 3-1475 (STIS + HST, ground spectroscopy)
Riera et al. (1995, 2003)
* CRL 618 (STIS + HST) (Riera et al. In prep.)
□BS M 2-48, K 4-47(ground-spect.) López-Martín et al. (2002),
Gonçalves et al. (2004).
▲ Δ NGC 7009 (ground-spect.) Balick et al. (1994), Gonçalves et al. (2003).
■ □ IC 4634 (ground-spect.) Guerrero et al. (in prep.)
● ○NGC 6543 (ground-spect.) Balick et al. (1994)
Δ denser than the nebular gas (10 M1-92, M2-56, OH238.1+4.2
□ Hen 3-1475
* CRL 618
□BS M 2-48, K 4-47
▲ ΔNGC 7009(WFPC2)
(reduced images provided by B. Balick). Balick et al. (1998)
■ □ IC 4634(WFPC2)
Guerrero et al. (in prep.)
● ○ NGC 6543 (WFPC2)
(reduced images provided by B. Balick; Balick 2004).
Lame, Harrington &
We include the radiation field from the central star that penetrates the recombination region behind the leading bow-shock in the direction from the post-shock to the pre-shock region.
Fully (singly) ionized (i.e. H+/H = 1, He+/He = 1).
Density (cm-3) (top panels) and neutral fraction of H (bottom panels) at different integration times.
Fraction of different ions of O for model M2 for an integration time of 200 years.
M1 integration time of 200 years.
● ○ Numerical simulations
We have to explore with larger values of the stellar temperature or/and the velocity of the clump.