Colonial & Early American TimesResource Unitfor5th Grade Created By: Tiffany Tilley
Table of Contents • Introduction • Content to be Covered • Objectives • Activities (sorted by Ohio Social Studies Benchmarks) • History • People in Societies • Geography • Economics • Government • Citizen Rights and Responsibilities • Social Studies Skills and Methods • Evaluation • Teacher References • Student References • Audio/Visual References
Introduction This resource unit has been designed to introduce students to life and major events in colonial times and early United States history. This resource unit will cover major events in American history during the time period of 1700-1780. Students will explore this time period using a variety of different engaging activities. Each of the seven areas of the Ohio Content Standards will be addressed within the framework the activities and lessons contained within this resource unit.
Native American groups, migration patterns, culture, trading with colonists, crops, division of labor Latitude and longitude Explorations of Christopher Columbus Early American immigration, routes, travel conditions, Slavery in the colonies Virginia Slave Codes Pontiac’s Rebellion French and Indian War Imports and exports “Common Sense” Intolerable Acts Loyalists and Patriots Sons of Liberty Boston Tea Party Declaration of Independence Content to be Covered
Objectives • Identify the major Native American groups present in America • Correctly use longitude and latitude to find specific points on a map • Discuss the explorations of Christopher Columbus • Discuss the travel route and conditions of early American immigrants
Objectives • Summarize the function and implications of slavery in the colonies • Define the Virginia Slave Codes • Discuss the cause of Pontiac’s Rebellion and the result • Discuss the cause of the French and Indian War and the outcomes • Define imports and exports as they existed in colonial America
Objectives • Describe Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” and explain the reaction by colonists • Define the Intolerable Acts and the repercussions of the acts • Identify loyalists, patriots, and the Sons of Liberty and their importance in colonial times
Objectives • Explain the cause of the Boston Tea Party and it’s effects • Describe the cause of the Declaration of Independence and it’s significance to the future of North America and it’s leaders
ActivitiesStandard: History • Students will create a time line of explorations of Christopher Columbus. (1) • Students will work in small groups to identify various Native American groups through web site resources. The students will specifically look for information on migration patterns, rituals, and unique characteristics of the groups. The students will present their assigned group to the remainder of the class. (2) • Students will write a persuasive letter from the perspective of a pilgrim who has just arrived in the “New World.” The letter should be addressed to a friend or relative and also try to convince that person why they, too, should come to the “New World.” Students may use web site resources to find facts that would persuade others to come to America (i.e. bountiful lands, wild game, etc.). (3)
ActivitiesStandard: History • Students will research one key event from the revolutionary period. Topics may include: Boston Tea Party, Declaration of Independence, the Intolerable Acts, etc. Students will create a poster highlighting the event and its significance. (5) • Students will inspect the migration patterns of Native Americans after the colonization of America. Students will choose one Native American group to profile and map out the migration pattern on a poster and explain their findings to the class. Students will also give information on the Native American tribe as it exists today (if applicable). (6)
History Web Sites • Christopher Columbus Timeline • Native American Indians and Map Locations • Pilgrims Web Sources • PBS Boston Tea Party Chronicle • Social Studies for Kids: Intolerable Acts • Ben's Guide to the Declaration of Independence
ActivitiesStandard: People in Societies • Students will compare and contrast the food, language, and clothing of Native Americans with colonial immigrants. Students will print out photos of traditional food and clothing from provided web sites and categorize these photos on a poster board to create a visual aid. Students will share their posters with the class. (1c,d,e) • Students will compare and contrast the life of the Cherokee Indians before colonization with the Cherokee life now as lived on the Cherokee Reservation in North Carolina. Students are looking specifically at means for survival (income), housing, and traditions. Students will use a Venn diagram to organize their information and findings. (2) • Students will read If You Lived When There Was Slavery in Americaby Anne Kamma. The students will write a journal response to the text, giving specific examples from the text of practices used. (3)
ActivitiesStandard: People in Societies • Students will investigate the Irish immigrants with a provided website and read Katie’s Wish by Barbara Shook Hazen. The students will write a summary of the story and also write a brief explanation why immigrants were coming to America. (4) • Students will watch a brief clip from the movie Gangs of New York to view how Irish immigrants were treated upon their arrival to America. Students will compare that scene from the scenes in Katie’s Wish. Students will write a response to the movie clip describing specifically how immigrants were treated upon their arrival. (5)
People in Societies Web Sites • Cherokee, NC Indian Reservation • Marilee's Native American Resources • Colonial Williamsburg: 18th Century Clothing and Practices • Colonial Williamsburg: Slavery in the Colonies • PBS: Slavery and the Making of America
ActivitiesStandard: Geography • Students will label the latitude and longitude coordinates of the 13 colonies on a map provided to them. Students will use web sites to research the 13 colonies (if that information is unknown). (1) • Students will research the conditions and climates early immigrants were exposed to while traveling to America on the Mayflower. The students will present their findings to the class. (3) • Students will research the conditions early immigrants were exposed to at the Jamestown settlement. Students will create a drawing (or a journal entry) depicting the scene an early immigrant would have seen. Drawings and journals will be mounted and displayed for all the students to view other’s interpretations of the scene. (3)
ActivitiesStandard: Geography • Students will examine the natural resources that were available to early immigrants. Students will describe how these resources would help or hinder the new settlements. (6) • Students will research trade relationships between immigrants to America and Native Americans. Students will reenact trades between the two groups and write a response to the activity. Students will explain the benefits or disadvantages of trading with the other group. (7a,c)
Geography Web Sites • Enchanted Learning Map Coordinates • Sail 1620: The Mayflower at Sea • Colonial Life in Virginia • The Jamestown Online Adventure • Teacher Net: Colonial FAQ • Trades and Tools from Colonial Times
ActivitiesStandard: Economics • Students will research the food scarcity upon the immigrants arrival and study about the First Thanksgiving. Students will create an “I am thankful for…” essay. (1) • Students will investigate Native American crops and how their production stabilized the immigrant settlements. Students will create a graph depicting crops and their frequency. (2) • Students will investigate the division of labor in Native American groups. The students will contrast that information with the division of labor of the arriving immigrants. Students will utilize a Venn diagram to organize their information. (3)
ActivitiesStandard: Economics • Students will examine the imports and exports of colonial America. Students will create a graph comparing the amount of imports against the amount of exports. (4) • Students will investigate the Boston Tea Party. Students will hypothesize about a “black market” for tea and infer how that would affect tea prices. Students will work collaboratively to create a line graph to show the rise or fall of tea prices over time. (5)
Economics Web Sites • Investigate the First Thanksgiving • Native American Seven Fires Council (Crops) • Thinkquest: Native American Customs • Economics in Colonial America • U.S. History: Boston Tea Party
ActivitiesStandard: Government • Students will examine the Declaration of Independence and its significance. Students will recreate a dramatic scene of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. (3) • Students will investigate the quote “No taxation without representation.” Students will write a letter either as a loyalist or a patriot defending their position on this quote.(2) • Students will investigate a loyalist, Samuel Seabury. Students will write a journal entry as they are Samuel Seabury and share some sentiments he had about the patriot movement and the rights of men. (2) • Students will read the book My Brother Sam is Dead by James and Chris Collier. Students will elaborate on the themes of the book (family and country ties, rights of men) and give an oral presentation of their summary. (2,b) • Students will interpret the Declaration of Independence from King George’s perspective. The students will act out a scene in which King George receives the Declaration of Independence from his colonies, conveying evident tone and mood. (3)
Government Web Sites • Samuel Seabury • No Taxation Without Representation • Congress for Kids: Declaration of Independence • Eduscapes: My Brother Sam is Dead • Social Studies for Kids: King George III
ActivitiesStandard: Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities • Students will examine the Intolerable Acts and the consequences that were in place for not paying one’s taxes. Students will create a journal entry as a tax collector working for the King describing how his job works and if it is easy to collect the taxes. (2, b) • Students will compare and contrast the individual rights colonials had under the King’s rule and individual rights under Independence. Students will use a Venn diagram to organize their information. (3, a-d) • Students will review laws under colonial America and contrast them with laws under American independence. Students will choose one law under each and a journal entry as a settler under each law discussing its fairness or unfairness. (2, a)
ActivitiesStandard: Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities • Students will research the Sons of Liberty. Students will create a Sons of Liberty newsletter persuading others to join them in their pursuit of independence from King George. Students will work in small groups of no more than 3 people. (3 b, c) • Students will research the institution of slavery to determine how one was declared a slave from birth. Students will write an essay on their findings. (1a)
Citizen Rights and Responsibilities Web Sites • U.S. History: The Sons of Liberty • Colonial American Law • History Central: Stamp Tax • Africans in America - Slavery and Birth • Colonial Life
ActivitiesStandard: Social Studies Skills and Methods • Students will research a Sons of Liberty member using provided web cites. Students will write a biography brochure on this person describing his life, dedication to the cause, and death. Students will computer generate the brochure. (2) • Students will read Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense.” Students will write a letter to a fictional Tory from the perspective of a loyalist. Students will cite specific examples from the pamphlet that show the intention of the author to further their cause. (4 b, c) • Students will research the institution of slavery in colonial America. Students will write a letter to Lord Dunmore stating reasons why slavery should be abolished and offering a solution to the ending slavery in the colonies. (9 b, e)
ActivitiesStandard: Social Studies Skills and Methods • Students will research the Virginia Slave Codes. Students will dramatize a town square scene in which abolitionists speak out against the slave codes and demand an end to slavery in the colonies. Students will work in groups of no more than 5 and write responses to the drama scenes of their peers. (9 a, b, c, d) • Students will investigate Pontiac’s Rebellion through provided web sites. Students will dramatize a meeting of the Ottawa Chief Pontiac and North American Indians urging them to fight against the British invaders for control of the Ohio Valley. Students may work in groups of no more than 5 and must critique other groups for effectiveness of speech, persuasion, and intent. (9 a,b,c,d,e)
Social Studies Skills and Methods Web Sites • Sons of Liberty Members • U.S. History: Thomas Paine • Africans in America: Lord Dunmore • Slavery in Colonial Times • Pontiac's Rebellion
Evaluation • Sample Evaluation (.doc) • Students would be expected to achieve an 80% or better to be considered proficient with the material covered in this resource unit. • If students obtain less than an 80%, students will have the opportunity to retake the test after the teacher has clarified the information through re-teaching lessons and alternative activities. The teacher may also choose an alternative assessment.
Evaluation Name: ___________________________________________ Date: _______________ Colonial Times Evaluation Multiple choice: Read all the answer choices and circle the correct answer. 1. The author of “Common Sense” was: George Washington Paul Revere Thomas Paine 2. A natural resource available to early immigrants was: Abundant game Fuel for heating and cooking Crops of food 3. Native American grew many crops. One of those crops is: Cabbage Carrots Maize 4. The important message sent to King George in 1776 and signed by colonists is called the: Constitution Declaration of Independence Bill of Rights
Evaluation 5. The acts imposed on the colonists by King George requiring them to pay many new taxes were called: The intolerable Acts The tax laws The unfair acts Short Answer questions: Write a brief response to the question asked. 6. Name three prominent Native American groups present when early immigrants arrived in America. 1. ______________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________ 7. Name the two opposing sides in the French and Indian War and give the outcome of the war (who won). 1. _____________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________ Outcome: _______________________________________________ 8. Give an example of a trade transaction between a Native American and a colonist (what they would trade). ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________
Evaluation Short Essay Questions. Read each question carefully. Respond to all parts of the question in complete sentences. Support your answer with specific facts and/or details. 9. Who were the loyalists and patriots. How did their actions play an important role in America’s (or England’s) future? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 10. Discuss the Sons of Liberty and their involvement in the Boston Tea Party. Give specific details about what happened during the Boston Tea Party. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
Teacher References • Baicker, Karen. Primary Sources Teaching Kit: Colonial America. New York: Scholastic, 2002. This resource is a great reference for teaching the daily lives of colonial and Native Americans. There are sections devoted to education, personal diaries, and information on the slave trade (auctions and runaway slaves). • Copeland, Peter. Life in Colonial America. New York: Dover Publications, 2000. This book contains 44 detailed, ready-to-color illustrations that depict the drama of American life before the Revolution. Images include arrival from Europe, encounters with Native Americans, the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, the deck of a slave ship, a frontier fort, a colonial kitchen, and much more. Descriptive captions provide brief history lessons. • Gravois, Michael. Hands on History: Colonial America . New York: Scholastic, 2003. This book gives the teacher some great art activities to use in the context of colonial America. Some examples are the question and answer disk, colonial quilt, log cabin vocabulary, and many more. • Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1565 - 1776. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. This outstanding book describes the history of these colonies, both individually and collectively. Since its first publication in 1992 it has become the established textbook for students of this period in American history. The third edition, revised throughout and substantially expanded, now includes a chapter on the Spanish in Florida, New Mexico, and Texas, together with an account of the French settlements in Louisiana. Accompanied by maps, contemporary illustrations, chronologies, documents, and a fully updated and expanded bibliography, this comprehensive and readable history of the colonial period offers a fascinating analysis of the evolution of a new and distinctive society. • Silver, Donald M. Colonial America (Easy Make & Learn Projects). New York: Scholastic, 2002.
Teacher References • Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1565 - 1776. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. This book describes the history of the colonies. It contains maps, illustrations, chronologies, and replicas of documents. It is a great resource to find specific information about the colonial period. • Silver, Donald M. Colonial America (Easy Make & Learn Projects). New York: Scholastic, 2002. This book uses paper models to illustrate key colonial America concepts. This book teaches about goods and services with the New England Seaport diorama and Lift & Look Georgia Plantation. Compare and contrast Colonial towns and homes with the 3-D Jamestown Map, Dutch Step House, and more. Each reproducible model comes complete with background information, easy how-to's, step-by-step lessons, and extension activities.
Student References • Beller, Susan. Yankee Doodle And The Redcoats . Brookfield: 21st Century, 2003. This book is a great reference source for students. It includes age appropriate text and images. Students can research specific details about colonial America with this text. • “Colonial America and the Revolutionary War.” Time for Kids. 2006. 2 Nov. 2006 <http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/hh/rapidresearch/0,19469,73237,00.html>. This is a great resource for students to access online. This website allows students to look up the Boston Tea party and other infamous events from the colonial period. • “Colonial Kids.” St. Luke Elementary. 2 Nov. 2006 <http://www.promotega.org/csu30025/children.htm>. This site allows students to see what the lives of children were like in the colonial period. Students can learn about the expectations for children and their daily chores, in addition to learning about clothing and education. • “Colonial Times in America.” Social Studies for Kids. 1 Nov. 2006 <http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/subjects/colonialtimes.htm>. This site has a multitude of information about the colonial period. It has information about the 13 colonies, farming, food, education, religion, and much more. • “How Do You Lose a Colony?” Thinkquest. 2 Nov. 2006 <http://library.thinkquest.org/J002559/> This website is all about the lost colony of Roanoke. Students will learn about the colony, and the disappearance of the settlers.
Student References • “Kids Zone.” Colonial Williamsburg - History for Kids. 2006. 1 Nov. 2006 <http://www.history.org/kids/>. This site is a kid-friendly site that is all about colonial America. Students can play games, learn about livestock, and daily lives of people. It also features information for parents and teachers. • Knight. Journey to Monticello . New York: Troll , 1999. This book allows readers to view life in 1775 as a young man travels from Massachusetts to Virginia. It depicts major events and is illustrated. • Miller, Brandon Marie. Growing Up in a New World: 1607 to 1775. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 2003. This book is wrote from the perspective of a child growing up in the colonies. It is a longer chapter book suitable for advanced readers.
Student References • Minor, Wedell. Yankee Doodle America: The Spirit of 1776 from A to Z . N.p.: Putnam Juvenile, 2006. Gives information of certain people during the time period. Each letter features a prominent individual from the time and gives a brief biography of the person and their importance in colonial times. • Worth, Richard. Colonial America: Building Toward Independence. N.p.: Enslow Publishers, 2006. This picture book discusses the key events that led to the American Revolution. It also discusses the Sons of Liberty and their importance in colonial times.
Audio/Visual References • Marching out of time [sound recording] / The Fifes and Drums of Colonial Williamsburg. Williamsburg, Va. : Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, p1989. This music recording allows listeners to experience the different drum marches of the colonial soldiers. • All the best from the American Indian [sound recording] St-Laurent, Québec, Canada : Distributed by Distributions Madacy Inc.,  This music recording allows listeners to experience authentic native American music. It features mainly native American groups for the northeastern region. • Wee sing America [sound recording] : songs of patriots and pioneers / by Pamela Conn Beall and Susan Hagen Nipp.Los Angeles, CA : Price/Stern/Sloan Publishers, p1987. This kid-friendly music collection is designed to give students a kids eye view of the patriots and pioneers through music. Students will learn about patriots such as Samuel Adams and Thomas Jefferson through song. • Heart of America [sound recording]. Manchester, VT : Resmiranda, p1989. This music collection is songs that are patriotic. Students may enjoy listening to the variations of patriotic music as it has evolved over time. • Native flute collection [sound recording]San Antonio, TX : Talking Taco Records, p1991. This recording illustrates the musical instruments that many native American groups use to create music. Students will enjoy hearing all the different instruments and unique sounds they create.
Audio/Visual References • Where America began : [videorecording] Jamestown, colonial Williamsburg, Yorktown Whittier, Calif. : Finley-Holiday Film Corporation, c1988. This film looks at three historic home restorations in Jamestown, Williamsburg, and Yorktown. Students will learn about the history of those three specific sites. • The American Revolution. Volume 3, Washington and Arnold [videorecording] / produced by Greystone Communications, Inc. for A&E Television Networks.New York, N.Y. : A&E Home Video, c1994. This production from A & E examines the revolutionary period in general. It discusses all the important events leading up to the war and the battles of the war. • Johnny Tremain [videorecording] / Walt Disney ; screenplay by Tom Blackburn ; directed by Robert Stevenson.Burbank, Calif. : Walt Disney Home Video : distributed by Buena Vista Home Video,  This movie is based from the book Johnny Tremain. Students will experience the patriot movement in the colonies through the eyes of a young boy.
Audio/Visual References • Brands, H. W. The life and times of Benjamin Franklin [electronic resource] / H.W. Brands.Prince Frederick, MD : Recorded Books ; [Boulder, Colo. : Made available electronically by] NetLibrary, 2006. This recorded book contains lectures delivered by Professor H.W. Brands, Texas A & M University. He examines the life of Benjamin Franklin and his influence on both American and world history. • Fast, Howard. April morning [electronic resource] / by Howard Fast.Prince Frederick, MD : Recorded Books, LLC ; [Boulder, Colo. : Made available electronically by] NetLibrary, 2005. This recorded book contains the story of fifteen-year-old Adam Cooper. He eagerly joins the action of the Revolutionary War. On the morning of April 19, 1775, he stands next to his father to confront the British soldiers marching out of Boston. • Richardson, Fayette.Sam Adams; the boy who became father of the American Revolution. New York, Crown Publishers . This book is a brief biography of the Massachusetts radical whose belief in forceful protest against injustice made him one of the leaders of the Revolution.
Audio/Visual References • Brain quest. 4th grade [interactive multimedia] [U.S.] : IBM/Image Builder, c1999. This computer software comes with Brain Quest questions, multi-player game modes to compete against others, game options designed for individual learning styles. Topics include the colonial period and the revolutionary war. • Liberty's Kids [electronic resource]. Novato, CA : Learning Co., c2002.EditionVersion 1.0 Windows/Mac ed. This computer software allows students to become one of Liberty's Kids and report on the events of the American Revolution, from the Boston Tea Party to the battle of Yorktown. They may interview heroes, experience battles and collect interesting historical facts. Then publish a front page, complete with articles and their own headlines. • Songs and stories from the American Revolution / [compiled by] Jerry Silverman. Brookfield, Conn. : Millbrook Press, c1994. This sheet music allows for students to learn patriotic music. It includes lyrics and sheet music for keyboard or piano. It includes these songs: The sergeant, Yankee Doodle, Ballad of Bunker Hill, The riflemen of Bennington and others. • Davis, Burke. Black heroes of the American Revolution. New York : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976. This book is an account of the black soldiers, sailors, spies, scouts, guides, and wagoners who participated and sacrificed in the struggle for American independence.
Audio/Visual References • Somerville, Mollie D. Women and the American Revolution. [Washington] National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, 1974. This book gives a brief biography of the women who played a part in colonial America and the American revolution. • Henry, Patrick. “’Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death!’” Colonial Williamsburg Online. Mar. 1775. 2 Nov. 2006 <http://history.org/almanack/people/bios/pathenryspeech.html>. The web site contains the full text of Patrick Henry’s famous speech. Students can read and analyze the speech. • Kid Info. Colonial Life. 2 Nov. 2006 <http://www.kidinfo.com/American_History/Colonization_Colonial_Life.tml>. This site allows for students to experience colonial life for men, women, and children. Students can discover customs, traditions, foods, and much more from the time period.
Audio/Visual References • Nall, Trish. “Colonies PowerPoint.” Jefferson City Schools. 2 Nov. 2006 <http://www.jc-schools.net/PPTs-socst.html>. This power point presentation is set up like a Jeopardy game. Students can answer trivia questions for points and compete against one another. • U.S. Gen Net. Colonial America. 2 Nov.2006 <www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/colonial/>. This site allows students to explore the trade that existed in the colonies. Students can learn about trade agreements, and the blockades.
Standards Addressed History • Create time lines and identify possible relationships between events. • Explain how American Indians settled the continent and why different nations of Indians interacted with their environment in different ways. • Explain why European countries explored and colonized America. • Explain how the United States became independent from Great Britain. • Explain the impact of settlement, industrialization and transportation on the expansion of the United States. Back to History Standard
Standards Addressed People in Societies • Compare the cultural practices and products of diverse groups in North America including: C) language, D) food, E) Clothing. • Compare life on Indian reservations today with the cultural traditions of American Indians before the reservation system. • Describe the experiences of African-Americans under the institution of slavery. • Describe the waves of immigration to North America and the areas from which people came in each wave. • Compare reasons for immigrations to North America with the reality immigrants experienced upon arrival. Back to People in Societies Standard
Standards Addressed Geography • Use coordinates of latitude and longitude to determine the absolute location of points in North America. • Describe and compare landforms, climates, population, culture, and economic characteristics of places and regions in North America. 6. Use distribution maps to describe the patterns of renewable, nonrenewable and flow resources in North America including A) forests, B) fertile soil, C) oil, D) coal, E) running water. • Analyze reasons for conflict and cooperation among regions of North America including: A) trade C) immigration. Back to Geography Standard
Standards Addressed Economics • Compare different allocation methods for scarce goods and services such as prices, command, first-come-first-served, sharing equally, rationing, and lottery. • Explain that individuals in all economies must answer the fundamental economic questions of what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce. • Explain how education, specialization, capital goods and the division of labor affect productive capacity. • Explain how regions in North America become interdependent when they specialize in what they produce best and then trade with other regions inside and outside North America to increase the amount and variety of goods and services available. • Explain the general relationship between supply, demand, and price in a competitive market. Back to Economics Standard
Standards Addressed Government • Explain the essential characteristics of American democracy including: B) all citizens have the right and responsibility to vote and influence the decisions of government • Explain the significance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. Back to Government Standard
Standards Addressed Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities • Explain how an individual acquires U.S. citizenship: A) birth • Explain the obligation of upholding the U.S. Constitution including: A) Obeying laws, B) Paying taxes • Explain the significance of the rights that are protected by the First Amendment including: A) Freedom of religion, B) Freedom of Speech, C) Freedom of the press, D) Right of petition and assembly. Back to Citizen Rights and Responsibilities Standard
Standards Addressed Social Studies Skills and Methods • Locate information in a variety of sources using key words, related articles and cross references. • Read information critically in order to identify: B) The author’s perspective, C) The purpose. • Use a problem-solving/decision-making process which includes: A) Identifying a problem, B) Gathering information, C) Listing and considering options, D) Considering advantages and disadvantages of options, E) Choosing and implementing a solution. Back to Social Studies Skills and Methods Standard