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Georgia and the American Experience. Chapter 5: From Royalty to Independence, 1752-1783 Study Presentation . © 2005 Clairmont Press. Georgia and the American Experience. Section 1: The Colonial Period Section 2: Georgia Becomes a Royal Colony Section 3: The Call for Independence

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georgia and the american experience
Georgia and the American Experience

Chapter 5:

From Royalty to Independence,


Study Presentation

© 2005 Clairmont Press

georgia and the american experience2
Georgia and the American Experience

Section 1: The Colonial Period

Section 2: Georgia Becomes a Royal Colony

Section 3: The Call for Independence

Section 4:The Revolutionary War Period

section 1 the colonial period
Section 1: The Colonial Period
  • Essential Question:
    • What were the similarities and differences between the three colonial regions in terms of political, economic, and socio-religious development?
section 1 the colonial period4
Section 1: The Colonial Period
  • What words do I needtoknow?
    • New England Colonies
    • Middle Colonies
    • Southern Colonies
    • apprentice
    • puritans
colonial transportation and communication
Colonial Transportation and Communication
  • Boats used for shipping and transportation
  • Stagecoaches were available, but slow mode of transportation
  • Many old Indian trails were used
  • Newspapers read in cities; news often old when it arrived in rural areas
education in the colonies
Education in the Colonies
  • Schooling took place in home or church; boys were taught practical skills
  • Girls learned homemaking skills
  • Apprentices learned specific skills from master craftsmen
  • First public schools began in New England; only boys attended
  • Wealthy families in South hired private tutors or had their sons schooled in Europe
  • Primitive “Old Field Schools” opened for boys from “common” families
religion in colonial georgia
Religion in Colonial Georgia
  • Anglican Church, or Church of England, made official church of Georgia colony in 1758
  • Church attendance expected; shorter sermons and music common
  • Moravians and Jews also practiced religion in Georgia
leisure activities in southern colonies
Leisure Activities in Southern Colonies
  • Fox hunting, horse races, week-long parties with friends and relatives popular
  • Food central to large social gatherings
  • Children’s games: jump rope, hoops, tennis, London bridge, hopscotch, leap frog, yo-yos and puzzles
  • Storytelling
romance and marriage
Romance and Marriage
  • Girls often married in their early teens
  • Courtships took place at dances, church, or during supervised home visits
  • Weddings were a day-long affair with great celebrations
  • Some wealthy families arranged marriages for business gain
  • Husbands were expected to provide; wives could not own property

Click to return to Table of Contents

section 2 georgia becomes a royal colony
Section 2: Georgia Becomes A Royal Colony
    • What political forces shaped Georgia after it became a royal colony?
section 2 georgia becomes a royal colony12
Section 2: Georgia Becomes a Royal Colony
  • What words do I need to know?
    • proprietary colony
    • royal colony
    • parish
    • French and Indian War
    • palisades
    • cracker
    • independence
change in colonial government status
Change in Colonial Government Status
  • Proprietary Colony: governed by a Board of Trustees
  • Georgia ceased to be Proprietary Colony in 1752
  • Royal Colony: colony directly governed by the King
  • Georgia became a Royal Colony in 1752; some people returned to Georgia who had left the colony while it was proprietary
the first royal government
The First Royal Government
  • Naval Captain John Reynolds, first royal governor, arrived in 1754
  • Reynolds introduced the idea of self-government
  • Two-chamber legislature set up: Commons House of Assembly (Lower House) and Governor’s Council (Upper House)
  • Court of Conscience settled disputes; overseen by justice of the peace
  • Only people owning 50 or more acres of land could vote
north america 1754
North America, 1754
  • Spain claimed Florida and Mexico
  • France claimed land from Louisiana to the Great Lakes, and parts of Canada; New Orleans (south) and Detroit (north) anchored French settlements
  • Great Britain had established the 13 coloniesalong the Atlantic coast
french and indian war origins
French and Indian WarOrigins
  • France and Great Britain wanted the treasures of the American continent
  • Both countries feared the other would gain the most power
  • France had the stronger army with more experienced leadership; British had better navy
  • Both sides had allies with certain Indian tribes
the french and indian war
The French and Indian War
  • Both sides claimed the Ohio River Valley area (more than 200,000 square miles)
  • The French built several forts in the area; many Indians sided with the French
  • The Virginia governor sent Captain George Washington with soldiers to Fort Necessity (near today’s Pittsburgh); a battle erupted
  • The war soon spread to Europe; by 1758, the British controlled the Ohio Valley
  • The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the war
georgia and the war s aftermath
Georgia and the War’s Aftermath
  • Treaty of Paris set Georgia’s western boundary at the Mississippi River
  • Proclamation of 1763 (King George III): Georgia’s southern boundary set at St. Mary’s River; Georgia colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
  • Cherokee and Creek tribes gave up land claims north of Augusta and in the coastal region
georgia s first assembly
Georgia’s First Assembly
  • First met in Savannah in 1755
  • Passed bills to repair and build roads
  • Organized a militia
  • Codes created to limit rights of slaves
  • Governor Reynolds was replaced in 1757 by Captain Henry Ellis
governor henry ellis
Governor Henry Ellis
  • Believed Savannah was one the world’s hottest places
  • Colonists immigrated to Georgia from South Carolina and the West Indies
  • Offered large land grants and slavery increased (3,600 slaves by 1759)
  • The economy flourished; more farms and goods to buy
  • In 1761, Ellis became royal governor of Nova Scotia, in Canada
governor james wright
Governor James Wright
  • Wanted to expand Georgia’s western lands to settlers
  • Completed Savannah’s defenses by strengthening forts and building palisades (fences made of sharpened stakes)
  • Sunbury became Georgia’s official port of entry
  • Land purchases increased greatly
  • More schools established, but for upper class children
georgia crackers
Georgia Crackers
  • People from Virginia and the Carolinas settled into middle and western parts of the colony
  • Plantation owners viewed them as “undesirable people”
  • Soon, these lower class peoples were called “crackers,” which was meant as an insult
  • Crackers were not welcome and thought of as ones who did not obey the colony’s laws

Click to return to Table of Contents

section 3 the call for independence
Section 3: The Call for Independence
    • How was Georgia’s role in the Revolutionary War affected by the attitudes of the colonists?
section 3 the call for independence24
Section 3: The Call for Independence
  • What words do I need to know?
    • Tories
    • Patriots
    • Boycotts
    • Proclamation of 1763
    • Liberty Boys
    • Acts (Sugar, Stamp, Townsend, Quartering)
unhappy with british acts
Unhappy with British Acts
  • Great Britain needed money; much debt and security expenses resulted from the French and Indian War
  • Sugar Act: tax on sugar and molasses imported from the West Indies
  • Stamp Act: tax on newspapers, legal documents, and licenses
  • Georgians disapproved of these acts
the liberty boys
The Liberty Boys
  • Georgians who came together to oppose the Stamp Act
  • Part of larger group, the “Sons of Liberty”
  • Some called them “Liberty Brawlers”
  • Met in taverns, such as Savannah’s Tondee’s Tavern
  • Georgia only colony to actually sell the stamps
  • Stamp Act was eventually repealed
protests increase
Protests Increase
  • Noble Wimberly Jones, speaker of Georgia colonial assembly, led Townshend Act protests
  • Townshend Acts:placed import taxes on tea, paper, glass, and coloring for paints
  • Governor Wright disbanded the assembly to try to end the protests
continental congress
Continental Congress
  • Met in Philadelphia in September 1774 to protest “Intolerable Acts” levied against the Massachusetts colonists
  • Georgia was not represented
  • Urged colonies to establish “Committees of Safety”
  • Agreed to stop all trade with Britain
  • Carried on its work in secret
  • “Provincial Congress” held in Savannah in January 1775; less than one-half of Georgia’s parishes were represented

Click to return to Table of Contents

section 4 the revolutionary war period
Section 4: The Revolutionary War Period
    • Why was there an American Revolution?
section 4 the american revolution
Section 4: The American Revolution
  • What words do I need to know?
    • Second Continental Congress
    • Declaration of Independence
    • ratify
    • Articles of Confederation
    • siege
    • Treaty of Paris (1783)
second continental congress
Second Continental Congress
  • Met in Philadelphia after Lexington and Concord battles
  • Drafted petition for King George III, asking for end of unfriendly steps against the colonies
  • Georgia III refused to accept the petition
  • Authorized Continental Army
  • Georgia’s Lyman Hall arrived in May 1775
georgia s second provincial congress
Georgia’s Second Provincial Congress
  • Held at Tondee’s Tavern in Savannah in July 1775
  • Archibald Bulloch, John Houstoun, Noble Wimberly Jones, and Reverend John Zubly chosen to represent Georgia in Philadelphia
  • Delegates given no specific instructions; told to make best decisions for Georgians
  • Governor Wright fled colony in early 1776; Council of Safety established “Rules and Regulations” to govern Georgia
declaration of independence
Declaration of Independence
  • Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” pamphlet encourage colonies to break from Great Britain; sold more than 500,000 copies
  • Other pamphlets, including “The Crisis” influenced opinion
  • August 2, 1776: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton sign the Declaration of Independence
  • The Declaration meant the colonists were one nation; Georgians prepared for war
georgia s first state constitution
Georgia’s First State Constitution
  • About one-third of Georgians remained loyal to Great Britain; they were called Tories
  • The Whigs influenced a state constitution allowing separation of powers and giving citizens rights to agree how they were governed
  • May 1777: Constitution adopted at Constitutional Convention in Savannah
  • Eight counties formed: Burke, Camden, Chatham, Effingham, Glynn, Richmond, Wilkes, and Liberty
the 1777 georgia constitution
The 1777 Georgia Constitution
  • The governor’s power was limited
  • Executive Council (12 legislators) held greatest power
  • Council could overrule the governor’s decisions
  • John Treutlen appointed Georgia’s first governor
  • Georgia’s 1777 Constitution changed in 1789
the articles of confederation
The Articles of Confederation
  • First Constitution of the United States of America
  • Ratified (approved) on July 4, 1776
  • Went into effect in January 1781, when ratified by Maryland and Virginia
revolutionary war fighting in georgia
Revolutionary War Fighting in Georgia
  • Savannah captured and looted by British troops in December 1778; lootings, murders, and burnings occurred
  • Sunbury port captured in early 1779; Augusta was also attacked
  • Georgia militia not effective against well-trained British troops
  • Governor Wright eventually returned from Great Britain to govern Georgia
battle of kettle creek 1779
Battle of Kettle Creek (1779)
  • Colonel Elijah Clarke led Georgia militia, defeated 800 British troops near Washington, Georgia
  • Great victory for morale of the militia and Georgians seeking independence
  • Won badly-needed weapons and horses from the British
siege of savannah 1779
Siege of Savannah (1779)
  • 15,000 Americans and 4,000 French laid siege to Savannah
  • Attack on October 9 resulted in 1,000 American and French deaths in less than an hour; only 40 British troops died
  • Polish Count Casimir Pulaski killed
  • Savannah remained under British control for nearly four more years
  • Guerrilla warfare continued in the Georgia backcountry
georgia wartime heroes
Georgia Wartime Heroes
  • Nancy Hart single-handedly captured a group of British loyalists who bragged of murdering an American colonel; Hart County is the only county named for a woman
  • Austin Dabney fought with distinction and was wounded at Kettle Creek; he also saved Elijah Clarke’s life during that battle
the war ends
The War Ends
  • Elijah Clarke, the Georgia Militia,and the Continental Army regain Augusta from British in June 1781; 11 battles or skirmishes fought in Georgia during the war
  • George Washington, with French help, force British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia in October 1781
  • British leave Savannah in the spring of 1782
  • Treaty of Paris (September 1783) ends war; treaty is signed by United States, Great Britain, and France

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