Energy In – Energy Out Body Mass Index Obesity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Energy In – Energy Out Body Mass Index Obesity

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  1. Energy In – Energy OutBody Mass IndexObesity

  2. Energy in – Energy out

  3. What is a “Calorie”? • Calorie (aka. ______________) • Amount of ____________ needed to __________ the temperature of 1 _________ of pure water by 1C • ______ calories = 1 kilocalorie (kcal) or 1 Calorie • Note: There is a difference between Calorie (capital C) and calorie (lowercase c) • Foods __________ in Calories can produce lots of _____________

  4. Fact about Calories • _______________ Calories you consume in _______________ of _______________, store approximately 1 _______________ of body fat • i.e. Consume extra 500 Calories for 7 days = 1 pound of fat  in a month = 4 pounds of fat • Regardless of food intake (protein, carbohydrates, fat), body will convert _______________ into _______________

  5. Fact about Calories • _______________ of excess Calories from carbohydrates sources are lost in their _______________ to fat • i.e. Consume extra 1000 Calories of carbohydrate, 750 Calories will be stored as fat • Number of _______________ necessary to maintain one’s current body _______________ is known as _______________ caloric need. • Examples include basal metabolic rate, calories for activity, & thermic effect of food

  6. Energy • What happens inside the body when you eat too much or too little food? • When _______________ food _______________ is consumed than is needed, _______________ fat enters the fat cells for _______________ • When energy supplies run _______________, stored fat is _______________

  7. Energy • Energy in foods and beverages is the only _______________ to the “_______________ ______” side of the energy balance _______________ • Must first become familiar with the amounts of energy in foods and beverages • Recommendations for energy intake _______________ from individual to individual

  8. Energy Equation Change in energy stores = energy in – energy out • Amount of _______________ energy stored by our body represents the _______________ between the amount _______________ in and the amount _______________ • Consume more than expend = weight ______ • Expend more than consume = weight _______

  9. Energy Out • No easy method exists for determining the energy an individual spends and therefore needs • One way to _______________ energy needs is to _______________ your food intake and body _______________ over a period of time (activities during this time are typical)

  10. Basal Metabolism (BM) • _______________ amount of energy the body requires to _______________ on all _______________ functions (sum total of all the involuntary activities that are necessary to sustain life, including heartbeat & circulation, respiration, temperature maintenance, nervous system activity, hormone secretion, etc. ) • _______________ component of the average person’s daily energy _______________

  11. Basal Metabolism (BM) • Age, sex, weight, lean _______________ mass, and general level of _______________ fitness _______________ one’s metabolic rate • _______________ energy to _______________ the body’s work that goes on all the time without our conscious _______________

  12. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) • _______________ from person to person • _______________ at which body uses _______________ to support its basal metabolism • You _______________ speed up your BMR • Can increase with voluntary activities Lean tissue is more metabolically active than fat tissue, as a way to speed up your BMR to the maximum possible rate is to make endurance and strength building activities a daily habit so that your body composition becomes as lean as possible

  13. How many Calories do I need? • Enough to cover your energy expenditures • Step 1: Convert pounds to kilograms _______ lbs ÷ 2.2 lbs/kg = _______ kg • Step 2: multiply weight in kg by BMR factor (BMR factor: 1.0 Calorie per kg of body weight/her for men or 0.9 for women [men have more muscle {metabolically active tissue} than women do) _______ kg x _______ kg/hr = _______ Calories/hr

  14. How many Calories do I need? • Step 3: Multiply the calories in one hour by hours in day _______ Calories/hr x 24 hrs/day = _______ Calories/day • I need to consume approximately _______ Calories each day.

  15. Resting metabolic rate • Resting metabolic rate (RMR) – measure metabolic rate under less rigorous conditions • Harris-Benedict Equation • Determine resting metabolic rate • ** Someone with more muscle mass will have a higher resting metabolic rate than someone with less muscle mass**

  16. Resting Metabolic Rate • **This is just an estimation** Males RMR • 66.5 + (5xH)+(13.7xW)-(6.8xA) Females RMR • 665 + (1.9xH)+(9.5xW)-(4.7xA) • ** H = height in cm; W = weight in kg; A = age

  17. From RMR to daily caloric needs • Take your RMR value & multiply by one of the following: • Relatively sedentary (no regular exercise routine) – multiply RMR by 1.4 • Exercises moderately (min 3 days/week) – multiply RMR by 1.6 • Highly active (moderate – high activity min 4 days/week) – multiply RMR by 1.8

  18. Thermic effect of food • About 5 – 10 % of a meals _______________ value is used up in stepped-up _______________ in the five or so hours _______________ the meal • The _______________ needed to _______________ , _______________ , transport, and store the food one consumes

  19. Body Mass Index

  20. Facts about BMI • The body mass index (BMI) is a _______________ of weight-to-height. It is not a _______________ measure of body fat but it is an _______________ of _______________ risk associated with being under- and overweight. • Research conducted with large groups of people have shown that the _______________ can be classified into _______________ associated with health risk.

  21. Facts about BMI • BMI values most _______________ in assessing degrees of _______________ and are less useful for _______________ non-obese people’s body fat • _______________ of using the BMI • Fail to indicate how much of the _______________ is fat • _______________ fat is located

  22. Facts about BMI

  23. BMI equation • BMI is the ratio of a person’s _______________ in kilograms to the _______________ of his or her _______________ in metres. BMI = body weight (kg) ÷ height² (m)

  24. Waist Circumference (WC) • The WC measurement is an _______________ of health risk associated with _______________ obesity. • A WC measurement of _______________ (40 in.) or more for _______________, and _______________ (35 in.) or more for women, is associated with an _______________ risk of developing health problems such as _____________________, coronary heart disease and high _______________ _______________.

  25. Apple or pear? • _______________ -shaped • People store body fat around the _______________ and chest, surrounding _______________ organs, such as the heart • _______________ risk for _______________ disease, stroke, diabetes, high blood pressure and gall bladder disease • _______________ -shaped • People store _______________ on the _______________ and thighs, just below the surface of the skin • Not necessarily a risk to their health

  26. BMI & WC • The BMI and WC may _______________ or _______________ health risks in certain adults, such as: • Highly _______________ adults • Adults who have a very _______________ body build • Young adults who have not _______________ full growth • Adults _______________ 65 years of age.