Obesity and Diabetes. A Growing Epidemic. By: Jennifer Brierley. Section One. Developing a Thesis and Finding Data. What is obesity? What is diabetes? How are obesity and diabetes related?. BMI = mass (kg) (height (m)) 2. What is Obesity?.
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A Growing Epidemic
By: Jennifer Brierley
Developing a Thesis and Finding Data
What is diabetes?
How are obesity and diabetes related?
What is Obesity?
Obesity by definition is an increase body weight caused by excessive accumulation of fat.
How do you know if someone is obese?
What is a Body Mass Index?
A Body Mass Index commonly known as your BMI is a common measure expressing the relationship of weight-to-height.
A person is obese when their Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeds 30 and a person is considered overweight when their Body Mass Index is between 25 and 30.
Weight = 52 kilograms
Height = 1.57 meters
BMI = mass (kg)
BMI = 52
I am not obese!
Quick Data Fact
Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic condition that results from the body’s inability to sufficiently produce and/or properly use insulin
What is Diabetes?
Type 2 Diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases in Canada with more than 60,000 new cases yearly.
Type 2 Diabetes can be prevented!
I researched the risk factors, health risks, symptoms, and prevention methods for obesity and diabetes.
I then drew a mind map in order to examine how obesity and diabetes are related.
Supply to limbs
Types of Cancer
Given birth to
A baby > 9 lb
Type 2 Diabetes
Date of birth
Have had gestational
fats in the body
Be physically active
Achieve healthy weight
And maintain it
Limit intake of
Fat and sugar
Balanced meals (include
Four food groups)
And other fats
Within target level
After analyzing the connections I was interested in whether or not Canadians could reduce the risk of diabetes if in fact they started to live a healthy lifestyle.
What effect do Canadian’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviors concerning obesity have on type 2 diabetes?
The better Canadian’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviors are concerning obesity, the lower the chance of developing type 2 diabetes will be
What do knowledge, attitudes and behavior mean?
Using Diagrams to find Connections and Organize Ideas
Does a person have
knowledge about diet?
Does the person
have poor diet?
Does a person
have a good
Does a person
Is the person
High risk of
Low risk of
Diet’s Role in Developing Diabetes
High risk ethnic groups
Had gestational diabetes
Given birth to a baby >9 lb’s
Being age 40 +
High blood pressure
14 and under
15 - 25
26 - 49
Level of education obtained
Does not apply to project
Causes (risk factors)
Being age 40+
Given birth to
a baby > 9 lb’s
Does not apply to project
Be physically active
Achieve healthy weight and maintain it
Maintain normal blood pressure
Limit intake of fat and sugar
Keep cholesterol and other fats within target level
Eat regular, balanced meals (include 4 food groups)
Part Two: Diabetes in Canada
Part Three: Effects of Obesity on Diabetes (correlation between the two)
Obesity in Canada
Mean 2004 = 11+21+20+30+30+25+24
23.0 –13.7 = 9.3
This is showing that the average percent of obese people in Canada has risen about 9% since 1980.
Median 1978/79 = 17
Median 2004 = 30
30 –17 = 13
The median and mode also display the increase in obesity rates since 1980. The median increase by 13 % and the mode by 10%.
Mode 1978/79 = 20
Mode 2004 = 30
Coefficient of determination (r2 ) = 0.8296
83% of the variation in the percentage of obese people is due to the variation of the year.
This graph clearly and effectively shows that Canadians need to pay attention to their weight because since 1991 obesity rates have increased by rapidly compared to the obesity rates from 1978 to 1991.
(in this graph obesity is measured by someone with a BMI>27)
Canada from 1985 to 1998
Percentage distribution of body mass index (BMI) by sex (2004)
This shows that obesity is a rising problem in Canada because in men the percentage of obesity is only 10% below the percentage of the population with a normal weight and in women it is only 20% below.
and Vegetable Consumption (2004)
Left Skewed Distribution
Physical Activity Level (2004)
Level of Education Obtained (2004)
Diabetes in Canada
(1994 to 2002)
Coefficient of determination (r2) = 0.974
Did you know that diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in Canada!!!!
This graph evidently displays the increase in the prevalence of diabetes over the years.
Estimated Future Deaths from Diabetes
(Number of actual and projected deaths due to diabetes by sex, Canada, 1970 - 2050)
Effects of Obesity on Diabetes
(correlation between the two)
What effect do Canadian’s knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning obesity have on type two diabetes?
Analyzing Primary Source Data
Gender Distribution of Survey Respondents
Data Sources and Limitations
Obesity rates in Canada are increasing rapidly. Why? Do Canadians not know about how to live a healthy life? Do they not care? Are they just choosing not to live a healthy life? 23% of the population is obese. Obesity has many serious health consequences, one being diabetes, which is directly correlated. Diabetes in Canada is on the rise as well. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in Canada at the moment. If obesity leads to the development of type two diabetes then as obesity continues to rise so will the development of diabetes and ultimately more deaths.
After many hours of research and analysis of graphs I realized that the Canadian’s knowledge about obesity and its consequences is reasonably good and their attitude towards solving the problem and reducing obesity rates is good. Then why are obesity rates still so high. The reason is behavior. Canadians are not acting upon their knowledge and attitudes toward obesity. In my survey almost 80% of the people new the correct number of servings of fruit and vegetables you need per day but in the secondary source graph 80% were not eating the correct amount. In order to solve the rising epidemic I believe that the government should develop programs to encourage the behaviors of Canadians towards a healthy living in order to reduce obesity and thus reduce diabetes.
Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for diabetes and stats show that an intensive healthy lifestyle (physical exercise) can reduce the risk of developing type two diabetes in an obese person by 58%. A person can reduce symptoms of diabetes through physical activity and proper diet. With obesity being a modifiable risk factor for diabetes, by improving Canadians behaviors towards obesity we can solve two major health issues as well as other benefits such as health care costs. If Canada could increase the number of physically active Canadians by 1% then the annual saving in the cost of treating type two diabetes would be $877,000. In conclusion obesity is a huge factor in reducing diabetes and in order to accomplish that the behaviors of Canadians need to be addressed because that is what the general population is lacking, not the knowledge, not the attitudes, but the behaviors.
I encountered a few bias in my survey. The first was a sampling bias. I sampled 100 people to represent the population of Canada. My sample didn’t accurately represent the population.
No non-response bias, which was surprising because I thought I would run into that problem.
Household bias occurred in my survey analysis because I did not survey equal amounts of males and females, and my age groups were not equally weighted. The bias did not affect my overall results.