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Obesity and Diabetes. A Growing Epidemic. By: Jennifer Brierley. Section One. Developing a Thesis and Finding Data. What is obesity? What is diabetes? How are obesity and diabetes related?. BMI = mass (kg) (height (m)) 2. What is Obesity?.

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slide1

Obesity

and

Diabetes

A Growing Epidemic

By: Jennifer Brierley

section one
Section One

Developing a Thesis and Finding Data

slide3

What is obesity?

What is diabetes?

How are obesity and diabetes related?

slide4

BMI = mass (kg)

(height (m))2

What is Obesity?

Obesity by definition is an increase body weight caused by excessive accumulation of fat.

How do you know if someone is obese?

What is a Body Mass Index?

A Body Mass Index commonly known as your BMI is a common measure expressing the relationship of weight-to-height.

A person is obese when their Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeds 30 and a person is considered overweight when their Body Mass Index is between 25 and 30.

slide5

Jen Brierley’s BMI

Weight = 52 kilograms

Height = 1.57 meters

BMI = mass (kg)

height (m)2

BMI = 52

(1.57)2

BMI =21

I am not obese! 

Quick Data Fact

  • The Body Mass Index Formula is a Mathematical Index
  • A mathematical index is an arbitrarily defined number that provides a measure of scale.
  • It is determined by a mathematical calculation that combines various attributes of each case in order to make comparisons.
  • Mathematical Indices are found in Unit 3 (Tools for Analyzing Data)
slide6

Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic condition that results from the body’s inability to sufficiently produce and/or properly use insulin

What is Diabetes?

  • There are 3 types of diabetes:
  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Gestational Diabetes

Quick Fact!

Type 2 Diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases in Canada with more than 60,000 new cases yearly.

Type 2 Diabetes can be prevented!

slide7

How are Obesity

and

Diabetes related?

I researched the risk factors, health risks, symptoms, and prevention methods for obesity and diabetes.

I then drew a mind map in order to examine how obesity and diabetes are related.

slide8

Frequent

Urination

Breathing Problems

Gallbladder disease

Female

Erectile

dysfunction

Unusual

thirst

Reduced blood

Supply to limbs

Nerve

damage

Types of Cancer

Fatigue

Blindness

Sex

Male

Sleeping Problems

stroke

Osteoarthritis

Health Risks

Symptoms

Health Risks

Heart

disease

Unexplained

weight loss

Given birth to

A baby > 9 lb

Type 2 Diabetes

Date of birth

Socioeconomic

influences

African

Adult

Have had gestational

diabetes

Aboriginal

Child

Metabolic

Causes

(risk factors)

Age

Asian

Cultural

Genetics

Body weight

South

Asian

Environmental

Hispanic

Factors

Being age

40 +

Behavioral

Obesity

BMI

Abdominal obesity

Non-abdominal obesity

Prevention

High blood

pressure

Height

High Cholesterol/other

fats in the body

Causes

Be physically active

Achieve healthy weight

And maintain it

High risk

ethnic groups

Imbalance involving

Excessive calorie

consumption

Limit intake of

Fat and sugar

South

Asian

Aboriginal

Inadequate

Physical

activity

Hispanic

African

Asian

Maintain normal

Blood pressure

Don’t smoke

Eat regular,

Balanced meals (include

Four food groups)

Inadequate

Energy

expenditure

Keep cholesterol

And other fats

Within target level

MIND MAP

slide9

After analyzing the connections I was interested in whether or not Canadians could reduce the risk of diabetes if in fact they started to live a healthy lifestyle.

Thesis Question

What effect do Canadian’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviors concerning obesity have on type 2 diabetes?

slide10

The better Canadian’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviors are concerning obesity, the lower the chance of developing type 2 diabetes will be

  • Obesity and diabetes are directly correlated
  • As the population as a whole becomes healthier, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes will decrease among Canadians

What do knowledge, attitudes and behavior mean?

  • Knowledge is if the population knows the facts and the statistics related to the topic
  • Attitude is how much the population care about the issue and whether they are willing to engage in the topic.
  • Behavior is what the population is doing. Are they dealing with the topic issue? Are they putting their knowledge and attitudes into effect?
  • Will examine Canadian’s knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to obesity in order to determine what type of intervention would lead to reducing obesity.
  • Will examine Canadian’s knowledge concerning the health factors related to obesity and whether or not Canadian’s are aware of the effect obesity has on developing type 2 diabetes.

Objectives:

Hypothesis

slide11

Section Two

Using Diagrams to find Connections and Organize Ideas

slide13

.

Does a person have

knowledge about diet?

No

Yes

Does the person

have poor diet?

Does a person

have a good

attitude towards

their diet?

Yes

Yes

No

No

unhealthy

Does a person

have good

behaviors towards

their diet?

No

Is the person

overweight?

healthy

No

High risk of

developing diabetes

Low risk of

developing diabetes

Diet’s Role in Developing Diabetes

slide14

Obesity

Genetics

High risk ethnic groups

Had gestational diabetes

Given birth to a baby >9 lb’s

High cholesterol

Being age 40 +

High blood pressure

Network Diagram

slide15

Network Diagram

  • Table that corresponds with network diagram.
  • + represents a relationship
  • represents no relationship
  • ----- represents that there is no relationship with itself
slide16

Canada

Ontario

Quebec

Sex

Male

Female

Age

14 and under

15 - 25

26 - 49

50 +

Level of education obtained

Elementary school

High school

College

University

Post graduate

Organization Chart

slide17

Tree Diagram

Diabetes

Type 1

Type 2

Does not apply to project

Causes (risk factors)

Prevention

Obesity

Genetics

High risk

ethnic groups

High

cholesterol

Had gestational

diabetes

High blood

pressure

Being age 40+

Given birth to

a baby > 9 lb’s

Abdominal

Non abdominal

Does not apply to project

Be physically active

Achieve healthy weight and maintain it

Don’t smoke

Maintain normal blood pressure

Limit intake of fat and sugar

Keep cholesterol and other fats within target level

Eat regular, balanced meals (include 4 food groups)

slide18

Part One: Obesity in Canada

Part Two: Diabetes in Canada

Part Three: Effects of Obesity on Diabetes (correlation between the two)

Section Three

Analyzing Secondary

Source Data

slide19

Part One:

Obesity in Canada

slide20

Obesity Rates in 1978/79 and 2004 by Age Group

  • The distribution of this graph is left skewed because the greatest frequencies are near the right end of the bar graph, although the 2004 data could be viewed as a mound shaped distribution.
  • The greatest obesity rates occur among adults ages 45 to 64.
  • This is accurate as the onset of type two diabetes is around age 40
slide21

Mean 1978/79 = 6+9+13+17+20+20+11

7

=13.7

Mean 2004 = 11+21+20+30+30+25+24

7

= 23.0

23.0 –13.7 = 9.3

This is showing that the average percent of obese people in Canada has risen about 9% since 1980.

Median 1978/79 = 17

Median 2004 = 30

30 –17 = 13

The median and mode also display the increase in obesity rates since 1980. The median increase by 13 % and the mode by 10%.

Mode 1978/79 = 20

Mode 2004 = 30

Calculations

slide22

Trends in Obesity Rates

Calculation:

Coefficient of determination (r2 ) = 0.8296

83% of the variation in the percentage of obese people is due to the variation of the year.

This graph clearly and effectively shows that Canadians need to pay attention to their weight because since 1991 obesity rates have increased by rapidly compared to the obesity rates from 1978 to 1991.

slide23

Obesity Prevalence in 2000/01 of the population ages 20 to 64

(in this graph obesity is measured by someone with a BMI>27)

slide24

Prevalence of Obesity in

Canada from 1985 to 1998

slide25

Mound Shaped Distribution

Percentage distribution of body mass index (BMI) by sex (2004)

This shows that obesity is a rising problem in Canada because in men the percentage of obesity is only 10% below the percentage of the population with a normal weight and in women it is only 20% below.

slide26

Obesity Rates by Fruit

and Vegetable Consumption (2004)

MMMMM

Left Skewed Distribution

slide27

Obesity Rates by

Physical Activity Level (2004)

Left Skewed

Distribution

slide28

Obesity Rates by

Level of Education Obtained (2004)

slide29

Part Two:

Diabetes in Canada

slide31

Trends in the prevalence of diabetes

(1994 to 2002)

Coefficient of determination (r2) = 0.974

Did you know that diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in Canada!!!!

This graph evidently displays the increase in the prevalence of diabetes over the years.

slide32

Mortality Rates due to Diabetes

Estimated Future Deaths from Diabetes

(Number of actual and projected deaths due to diabetes by sex, Canada, 1970 - 2050)

slide33

Part Three:

Effects of Obesity on Diabetes

(correlation between the two)

observations and conclusions based on secondary data
Observations and Conclusions based on Secondary Data
  • Obesity is an rapidly increasing health risk in Canadian society
  • Obesity and diabetes are directly correlated.
  • Obesity is a modifiable risk factor of diabetes
  • Diet and Physical Exercise prevent both diseases
  • Diabetes prevalence in Canada is on the rise. It is already the 7th leading cause of death. If it continues to increase it will produce a major health epidemic in our society.
slide37

How can we fix this fast approaching epidemic?

What effect do Canadian’s knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning obesity have on type two diabetes?

slide38

Surveyed 100 people

  • Objectives:
  • Obtain information to back up secondary sources
  • Explore my thesis and come to some concrete conclusions

Section Four

Analyzing Primary Source Data

slide39

Gender Response Frequency

Gender Distribution of Survey Respondents

60

50

40

Frequency

30

20

10

0

Male

Female

Unknown

Gender

slide48

Section Five

Conclusion

Data Sources and Limitations

Bias

slide49

Conclusion

Obesity rates in Canada are increasing rapidly. Why? Do Canadians not know about how to live a healthy life? Do they not care? Are they just choosing not to live a healthy life? 23% of the population is obese. Obesity has many serious health consequences, one being diabetes, which is directly correlated. Diabetes in Canada is on the rise as well. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in Canada at the moment. If obesity leads to the development of type two diabetes then as obesity continues to rise so will the development of diabetes and ultimately more deaths.

slide50

Conclusion Continued

After many hours of research and analysis of graphs I realized that the Canadian’s knowledge about obesity and its consequences is reasonably good and their attitude towards solving the problem and reducing obesity rates is good. Then why are obesity rates still so high. The reason is behavior. Canadians are not acting upon their knowledge and attitudes toward obesity. In my survey almost 80% of the people new the correct number of servings of fruit and vegetables you need per day but in the secondary source graph 80% were not eating the correct amount. In order to solve the rising epidemic I believe that the government should develop programs to encourage the behaviors of Canadians towards a healthy living in order to reduce obesity and thus reduce diabetes.

Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for diabetes and stats show that an intensive healthy lifestyle (physical exercise) can reduce the risk of developing type two diabetes in an obese person by 58%. A person can reduce symptoms of diabetes through physical activity and proper diet. With obesity being a modifiable risk factor for diabetes, by improving Canadians behaviors towards obesity we can solve two major health issues as well as other benefits such as health care costs. If Canada could increase the number of physically active Canadians by 1% then the annual saving in the cost of treating type two diabetes would be $877,000. In conclusion obesity is a huge factor in reducing diabetes and in order to accomplish that the behaviors of Canadians need to be addressed because that is what the general population is lacking, not the knowledge, not the attitudes, but the behaviors.

slide51

Data Sources and Limitations

  • Data Sources
  • The majority of my data was found using reputable statistic sources. The main two data sources I used were:
  • Statistics Canada – I found the majority of my raw data for my secondary sources there.
  • Health Canada – I found many published and approved reports on obesity, diabetes , and the correlation between the two.
  • Limitations
  • For the obesity data there were a few limitations in the secondary sources.
  • There was not a lot of available data that included the under 18 age group because the body mass index standards differ for adults and children. This was a limitation because my survey evaluated data from people under 18.
  • Data was not collected from the territories.
  • For the diabetes data there was one big limitation and that was the fact that statistics do not differ from the various types of diabetes. The stats represented all 3 types: type 1, type 2, and gestational. Although it might have skewed the data slightly, type 2 diabetes accounts for 90% of all cases so it wasn’t too much of a problem.
slide52

sampling interval =population size

sample size

= 32270500

100

= 322705

I encountered a few bias in my survey. The first was a sampling bias. I sampled 100 people to represent the population of Canada. My sample didn’t accurately represent the population.

No non-response bias, which was surprising because I thought I would run into that problem.

Household bias occurred in my survey analysis because I did not survey equal amounts of males and females, and my age groups were not equally weighted. The bias did not affect my overall results.

Bias