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New Media Technologies: Communication Theories. COM 300 Kathy E. Gill 9 January 2007. Agenda. Review Reading Assignment Questions Missing! Where “ grade ” is posted Communication Theories “ New Media ” Discussion Demo: Garage Band. New media (1/2).

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new media technologies communication theories

New Media Technologies: Communication Theories

COM 300

Kathy E. Gill

9 January 2007

  • Review Reading Assignment
    • Questions Missing!
    • Where “grade” is posted
  • Communication Theories
    • “New Media” Discussion
  • Demo: Garage Band
new media 1 2
New media (1/2)
  • Term has been used since the 1970s by researchers conducting social, psychological, economic, political and cultural studies of information and communication technologies (ICTs)
new media 2 2
New media (2/2)
  • Some definitions focus on computer technology, others focus on interactivity
  • Differences:
    • Audiences not heterogeneous
    • Control shifts from communicator to audience
  • See “What Is New Media?”
  • A process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach mutual understanding (Rogers, 1995).
mediated communication
Mediated communication
  • What is it?
    • d. mediated. (adj) acting or brought about through an intervening agent; (v) to be in the middle
  • Why would we study it?
    • We live in an ever-increasingly mediated world
part one medium
Part one : medium
  • A go-between/intermediary in the communication binding the sender and receive
    • Considers symbolic and cognitive theories of the psychology of representation
    • Considers theories of meaning in signs and symbols (semiotics)
part two mass media 1 2
Part two : mass media (1/2)
  • Mass communication characteristics:
    • Directed towards a large, heterogeneous audience
    • Messages are transmitted publicly, are transient in nature, and are timed to reach all simultaneously
    • Communicator works for an organization

Charles Wright, 1959, from Communication Theories: Origins, Methods and Uses in the Mass Media, 1988, p7

part two mass media 2 2
Part two : mass media (2/2)
  • Mass media communication traditionally encompasses these channels
    • Newspapers, magazines (print technologies)
    • TV, radio (electronic technologies)
  • Note: “news” v “ads”
  • The physical/technical transmission as well as any device needed for encoding/decoding
  • May encompass advertising channels (direct mail) or news (TV)
  • One-to-many, one-way channel is typical
where might new media go
Where Might New Media Go?
  • See “Front Pages From Around The World”
  • See “History of Blogs”
so what is new
So, what is new?
  • Technologically?
  • Socially?

Your thoughts, based on readings?

  • Three BIG things:
concept of scarcity
Concept of scarcity
  • Gone!
  • Bits can be shared; atoms cannot
  • Implications?
    • How does this relate to Bush’s musings about Memex?
    • Does it make it easier or harder to “remediate”? Why?
constraint of time
Constraint of time
  • Gone!
  • Time-shifting (Tivo, podcasting, 24x7 tech support via the web … what else?)
    • How do you think that the speed in which we now communicate (e-mail, mobile phones, etc.) has affected our communication?
constraint of space
Constraint of space
  • Geographical barriers: Gone!
  • Internet technology lets us “space shift” like we “time shift” – (almost) seamlessly
    • There are environmental benefits from the advancement of technology, specifically from computers. If in the future, all of academia (from grade school & beyond) required only computer-based work, what would your response be to the change? Why?
end point tuesday
End Point - Tuesday
  • We’ll pick up here on Thursday
new channels
New channels
  • WWW
  • E-mail
  • Videoconferencing
  • MP3
  • Electronic publishing
  • Mobile telephony

What do they have in common?

computer mediated communication 1 2
Computer Mediated Communication (1/2)
  • Desktop computers used as tools to influence human cognition and convey messages among people (focuses on the technology, older definition)
  • Any form of communication between two or more individuals who interact and/or influence each other using social software on separate computers linked by a network (focuses on the people)
cmc 2 2
CMC (2/2)
  • CMC software has two categories: asynchronous and synchronous (Smith, 1994).

  • Two or more group members have real-time (simultaneous) communication
  • Instant Messenging can be synchronous
  • Face-to-face meetings; video conference; other?
  • Allows group members to work individually and “alone”
  • Provides time/space flexibility
  • E-mail, BBs
  • Example: virtual teams
virtual teams
Virtual Teams
  • Types
    • Temporary (no common history or future)
    • Permanent (common history and future)
  • Forms of Interaction
    • Face-to-face (meetings, formal or informal)
    • Electronically-mediated (phone, CMC, videoconference)
  • Context
    • Culture and geography may be similar or different
cmc web characteristics 1 2
CMC/Web Characteristics (1/2)
  • Hardware independent
  • Software independent
    • IM Not Here Yet, But Close (Google)
  • Open standards
  • Information sharing
  • “Give back” (contribute) to the community
cmc web characteristics 2 2
CMC/Web Characteristics (2/2)
  • A blend of characteristics from “old” media
    • Print
    • Radio
    • Film
    • TV
print characteristics
Print Characteristics
  • Abstract
  • Captive audience
  • Fixed
  • Linear
  • Primarily verbal
  • Reader controls pace
radio characteristics
Radio Characteristics
  • Auditory
  • Creator controls pace
  • Dynamic
  • Linear
  • “Live” — happening in real time
  • Transient audience
tv characteristics
TV Characteristics
  • Animated
  • Creator controls pace
  • Dynamic
  • Linear
  • “Live” — may be happening now
  • Primarily visual
  • Transient audience
film characteristics
Film Characteristics
  • Animated
  • Captive audience
  • Creator controls pace
  • Fixed
  • Linear
  • Primarily visual
web characteristics
Web Characteristics
  • Dynamic
  • “Live” (maybe)
  • Multi-media (visual, auditory)
  • Transient audience
  • Typically nonlinear
  • User controls pace and direction
mass audience no longer
Mass audience no longer
  • From broadcast to narrowcast
  • Time-shifting
  • Accelerates a move foreshadowed by niche publishing
  • Mediated Communication is …
  • Two types are …
  • Three characteristics of new media and their impacts …
  • Effects of Four CMC Channels on Trust
  • Glossary of Internet Terms
  • JCMC