Bell ActivityChem IIJanuary 3, 2012 • Discuss the real differences (by your understanding) in organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry. Make it at least two paragraphs (one on each topic) (you can find all you need starting in chapter 11 of the organic (green) book).
CHEMISTRY II BELL January 4, 2012 • Name 5 things that one should never do in a laboratory setting. • Name 5 things that would be considered acceptable during a lab activity. • List 5 (general) pieces of equipment and define their purpose during lab activities.
Chemistry II Bell ActivityJanuary 5, 2012 • Ingesting this causes blindness and then death. • This is found in nail polish remover. • This causes impotence • The most flammable of all the solvents • This causes one to become intoxicated. • The solvent used in dry cleaning • Was one used as an anesthetic
Chemistry II Bell Work January 6, 2012 • What is the purpose of the “tare” button on the electronic balance? • What is the advantage of having the shapes of the Erlenmeyer flask and the graduated cylinder? • What does “denatured” mean? • What happens if you don’t wear your goggles? • If you boil alcohol and water, which one would boil off first? (hint: alcohol = 650, water = 1000—both in Celsius)
CHEM II BELL ACTIVITYJanuary 10, 2012 • What is distillation? • a process in which a liquid or vapor mixture of two or more substances is separated into its component fractions of desired purity, by the application and removal of heat. • List the pieces that you will be using in the distillation process. • Beaker, boiling flask, distillation head, hollow stopper w/gray holder attached, thermometer, condenser, rubber tubing, vacuum adapter, ring stands (2), graduated cylinder, hot plate, ring stand clamps (2).
Chem II Bell ActivityJanuary 13, 2012 • From yesterday’s lab, answer the following questions: • What did you learn? • What did you do differently the second day? • How could you have made your lab activity safer? • What was the purpose of the food coloring? • How did you find your percent y? • Why do you think your boiling points differed from the accepted values?
Chem II Bell Work January17, 2012 • Name each functional Group below: • CH3 – CH– CH2 – CH3 • CH3 – C – CH2 – CH2 – CH3 • CH3 – C – H • CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – C – OH • CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – C – CH2 – CH3 • CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – CH2 – CH2 –NH2 • CH3 – CH2 – O – CH3 • CH3 – CH2 – C – NH2 • CH3 – CH = CH – CH2 – CH2 – CH3
Chemistry II Bell WorkAugust 25, 2011 • Name at least six items you recognize to be composed of organic compounds. • Why were the compounds of carbon originally called organic compounds? • Describe what Wohler did that made the vital force theory highly questionable. • What is the unique structural feature shared by all organic compounds? Early scientists noted that organized (living) systems were the source of these compounds, hence; the name “organic” was applied They all contain carbon
CHEMISTRY II BELL ACTIVITY January 18, 2012 • Define the terms and/or describe what the following people contributed to organic chemistry. Get this from your book: • Friedrich Wohler • Lewis Dot structures • VSEPR theory • Vital force (chapter 11) • Covalent bond • Ionic bond
Daily Purpose: To identify the 10 functional Groups we use in organic chemistry. Chem II Bell Activity August 26, 2011 (Put these in your notes) The Functional Groups Term/Definition Alkane consists of only carbon to carbon single bonds Alkene consists of at least one carbon to carbon double bond Alkyne consists of at least one carbon to carbon triple bond Alcohol contains an R-OH group Aldehyde contains a terminal R- O=C-H group Ketone contains an internal R-C=O-Rgroup Carboxylic acid contains a terminal R-O=C-OH group Ether contains an internal R-O-R group Ester contains an internal R-O=C-O-R group Amine contains a terminal R-NH2 group Amide contains a terminal o=C-NH2 Aromatic contains the benzene ring C6H6
CHEMISTRY II BELL ACTIVITY August 26, 2011 • Define the following terms: • Polar covalent bond • Nonpolar • Condensed structural formula • Expanded structural formula • Functional group • Hybrid orbital • Isomerism shows bond polarization—bonding electrons are shared unequally Pair of electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms Shows the general arrangement of atoms but without showing all the covalent bonds Shows all the covalent bonds A combination of atoms that differentiates molecules of organic compounds of one class from those of another An orbital produced from the combination of two or more nonequivalent orbital's of an atom A property in which two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms
Chemistry II Bell WorkAugust 26, 2011 • What is one of the major differences in organic and inorganic compounds? • What is one of the major reasons why we have so many organic molecules? • What does “saturated” mean? • Draw the structure belonging to C6H6. • Yes or No! Can carbon tetrachloride be made from reacting methane with chlorine?
Chemistry II Bell ActivityJanuary 27, 2011 • What causes all the different molecules to form different shapes? Answer this based on your knowledge of electrons, polarity, charges, electronegativity, etc. (Use your book to find this answer under the VSEPR section) • Draw the tetrahedral shape of the methane molecule. • Draw the two isomers of C2H6O
Chemistry II Bell ActivityJanuary 31, 2011 • What does the term “Like dissolves like” mean? • What is the difference in polar and nonpolar molecules? • What does it mean for something to be “hydrophobic” or “hydrophilic”?
Chemistry II Bell Activity January 31, 2011 • Explain how the structure and bonding of carbon lead to the diversity and number of organic compounds. • Tell me how many covalent bonds each of the 10 elements we use in organic can form. Ex. Carbon can form 4, etc.
Chem II Bell ActivitySeptember 1, 2010 • Discuss 5 reasons why a pharmacists or doctor would need to have a good understanding of organic chemistry. • Why is carbon so important to the medical field as well as to each of us?
CHEMISTRY II BELL ACTIVITYAugust 30, 2011 • Do learning check 11.1 and 11.2 on page 344 (green book) • Define the following terms: • Hydrocarbons • Saturated hydrocarbons • Normal alkane • List the prefixes for the first 10 alkanes and name the alkyl group associated with them. (Page 357) (top of page in first paragraph)
CHEMISTRY II BELL ACTIVITYAugust 31, 2011 • Do learning check 11.4 on page 350. • Look at the story on “petroleum” on page 367. Pick out 5 key words in the 3 paragraphs, then write a summary statement using those five key words. (**Remember a summary statement consists of 2-3 sentences only using key words you have picked out of the paragraphs)
Chemistry II Bell ActivitySeptember 1, 2011 • Name the first 10 alkanes. • State the first 3 rules in naming alkanes. • What is the naming system we use in naming organic compounds?
Chem II Bell ActivitySeptember 2, 2011 • List the prefixes (from memory) for the alkyl groups (1-5) • List the first ten alkanes (from memory) • Are the following (1)parents or (2)groups and give the name the parent or group: • C6H14 C2H5 • C10H21 C4H9 • C7H15 C3H8 • C8H18 C5H11
CHEMISTRY II BELL ACTIVITYSeptember 6, 2011 • Write a molecular formula for the following structures: (remember: CnH2n + 2) • Methane -hexane • Methyl -hexyl • Ethane -pentane • Ethyl -pentyl • Propane -butane • Propyl -butyl
Chemistry II Bell ActivitySeptember 7, 2011 • What is the term given to a carbon that is connected to 4 other carbons? • Which functional group does benzene belong to? • How do you write an alkyl halide? • What is a continuous chain of carbons called? • Define isomer. • Go to page 374 and complete problem 11.42.
Chem II Bell ActivitySeptember 8, 2011 • Turn to page 369 and read “Carbon Monoxide, Silent and Deadly” and write a 3-5 sentence summary of the topic discussed. • Why are there NO 1-methyl groups? • What is the difference in a primary carbon and a tertiary carbon group?
Chemistry II Bell ActivitySeptember 12, 2011 • Are the following structures possible? If not, then write the correct answer • 1,2-dimethylpropane • 3,4-dimethylpentane • 2-ethyl-4-methylpentane • 2-bromo-3-ethylbutane • 2-methylhexane • 2,4-methylhexane • 1,1,1-triethylcyclopentane • 2-propylcyclobutane
Chemistry II Bell ActivitySeptember 13, 2011 • Which functional group contains at least one double bond and is unsaturated? • Is “COKE” found in nature or is it synthetic? • Do alkanes undergo oxidation? And if they do what is produced? • Where is natural gas found?
Chemistry II Bell ActivitySeptember 14, 2011 • How is methane transported? • What color are the tankers that transport propane and butane? Why? • What is another name for Isopropyl Iodide? • Which alkanes are more cost efficient for tractor fuels?
Chem II Bell WorkSeptember 15,2011 Are the following molecules possible? • 1,2,2,2-tetrabromobutane • 3,3-dimethyl-4-ethyloctane • 1-methylcyclobutane • Dimethylpropane • Draw the following: • 3,4,4-trimethyloctane 4-ethyl-3,3-dimethylhexane • 3-ethyl-2-methylhexane 2,2,6-trimethyloctane • 1,1,4—trimethylcyclohexane methylcycloheptane
Chem II Bell WorkSeptember 16, 2011 • This is used as a refrigerant • Can an alkyl halide be produced when alkanes undergo substitution? • Does the blood hemoglobin like CO or CO2 better? • Is “Iso” a prefix or does it go by the alphabetizing rule? • What are the 4 products of petroleum refining? • Which process is used for petroleum refining?
Chemistry II Bell ActivitySeptember 19, 2011 • Define the following terms: • Hydration polyunsaturated • Polymerization carbocation • Markovnikov’s rule phenyl group • Addition reaction • Aromatic hydrocarbons • Alkenes • Alkynes • Alkyl halide
Chem II Bell ActivitySeptember 21, 2011 • Name the following alkenes: • CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH2CH3 • CH2(Br)CH2CH(Br)CH2CH2CH=CH2 • CH3CH2CH(CH(CH3)2)CH=CHCH2CH2CH3 • CH3CH2C CCH2CH2CH(Br)CH3 CH2CH3 CH3
Chemistry II Bell ActivitySeptember 23 , 2010 • What are cis and trans isomers? • Draw the following molecules: • 1-ethyl-3-methylcyclobutene • 2-bromo-1,3-pentadiene • 2,5-dichloro-2,4-hexadiene • 4-isopropylcyclopentene • 5,5-diIsobutylcycloheptene • 1,2-dimethyl-4-propylcyclohexene
Chemistry II Bell ActivitySeptember 29, 2011 • Draw the following alkenes: • 2-pentene • Ethyne • 3,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene • 1,2,3-tribromocyclo butene • 1-chloro-3-methyl-3-hexene • 2,5-diethyl-1,3,3-trimethylcyclopentene • 1-butyl-2-isopropylcyclopropene • 2,2,5-trichloro-3-heptyne
Chemistry II Bell ActivitySeptember 27, 2010 • Which kind of rubber is bouncy? • Which kind of rubber is not bouncy? • Another name for vitamin A is _____. • Which kind of fatty acid is bad for you? • What is the pheromone secreted by the female gypsy moth? cis trans Cis-retinal or opsin trans Cis-glyplure
Chemistry II Bell ActivitySeptember 28, 2010 • What is the IUPAC name for acetylene? • What is the common name for propene? • What is the chemical that ripens fruits and vegetables? • What is the process that changes the cis fatty acid to trans fatty acid? • The rule that states that the carbon that is “poor” (of hydrogens) will produce the major product.
Chem II Bell ActivitySeptember 12, 2008 • Look on page 407 and do the following exercises: • 12.1 • 12.2 • 12.3 Define the following terms: • carbocation -hydration • hydrogenation -Markovnikov’s rule • phenyl group -polyunsaturated
Chemistry II Bell Activity October 4, 2010 • What do you dehydrate in order to make an alkene? • In an alkyl halide-RX-what does the X stand for? The R? • What agent is used in dehydrohalogenation? • In a dehydration reaction, what is produced other than an alkene?
Chemistry II Bell ActivityAlkene test info 2008 • Things to remember for the test • Read the wording carefully. • Name all HC products • If you have a major—then you will have a minor—draw them both • If you have a cis—there is a trans— draw them both • Don’t put a major/ minor if you can’t use one of the rules • Put your lines representing the hydrogens. • Remember the difference in hydration and hydrogenation.
Chemistry II Bell ActivityOctober 21, 2011 • Who was Michael Faraday? • Who was Freidrich Kekule’ and his contribution to the benzene structure? • Name 9 ways of lowering your cancer rate and give an explanation of each of the 9. He discovered the benzene structure in 1825 He was the one who suggested that the benzene molecule might be represented by a ring arrangement of carbon atoms with alternating single and double bonds between the carbon atoms. (Next slide)
Do not smoke: increases ones risk of mouth, throat, pancreatic, kidney, stomach, bladder, breast, and colon cancers. • Increase your consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains: High fruit/vegetable intake have the lowest rate of most cancers. • Reduce your intake of animal fat: red meat—risk of prostate and colon cancer & sometimes breast cancer. • Don’t grill meats at high temperatures: open flames cause cancer-promoting compounds to form in the meat. • Reduce your alcohol intake: excessive use can cause cirrhosis and cancer to the liver. • Be active: exercise has shown that it reduces breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in males • Maintain a proper weight: obesity increases the risk of heart disease, strokes, diabetes, and development of cancer. • Don’t sunbathe: limit your exposure to the sun • Avoid exposure to known hazardous materials or conditions: Be aware of and use appropriate precautions and protective equipment.
Chemistry II Bell ActivityMarch 28, 2011 • Describe the chief physical properties of aromatic hydrocarbons. • Why does benzene not readily undergo addition reactions characteristic of other unsaturated compounds? • Compare the chemical behavior of benzene and cyclohexene. Nonpolar & insoluble in water B/c benzene rings are relatively stable chemically & b/c of this, benzene often reacts in such a way that the aromatic ring remains intact. Cyclohexene undergoes addition reactions. Benzene resists addition reactions. Both undergo combustion.
Chemistry II Bell ActivityOctober 24, 2011 • What is another name for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene? • What is DDT’s greatest drawback? • What does DDT stand for? • What did DDT do the egg shells of birds? TNT It is very stable dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane It upset the bird’s estrogen level
Chemistry II Bell ActivityOctober 24, 2011 • Why will DDT become less effective in the future? • What is the compound that smells like mothballs? • What type of reaction does benzene go through? • Do all aromatics smell good? • Is chlordane synthetic or naturally produced? Insects are becoming immune to it naphthalene substitution No synthetic
Chemistry II Bell ActivityMarch 30, 2011 • What is a major drawback for DDT? • Name three advantages of using DDT. • Which animals would most likely have the highest levels of DDT? • What does DDT stand for? • Why did DDT become less effective? • What made bird egg shells to become thin? Very stable Kills lice/ticks, mosquitoes, control of bird population Fish or minnows dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane Insects became resistant Birds estrogen levels were upset
Chemistry II Bell ActivityOctober 26, 2011 • What are the terms given to the OH group? • What is the source for making wine? • What is tetrahydrofuran used for? • How are alcohols similar to water? • What are two ways to make ethanol? Hydroxy, hydroxyl, and hydrid grapes PVC coating & laboratory solvents They are both polar molecules & they contain the OH grouping Fermentation and hydration of ethene
Chemistry II Bell ActivityApril 5, 2011 Apple Lab Questions • If oxygen is lacking what will be the product of fermentation? If present? • Write a balanced equation illustrating the process of fermentation. • What is one way you can determine whether the product is alcohol or vinegar? • Differentiate between beers and wine. • What causes dough to rise? • What gas is produced in fermentation? • What is the purpose of the balloon on top of the apparatus used to distill the alcohol?
Chemistry II Bell Acitivity April 6, 2011 • Why are the boiling points of alcohols much higher than the boiling points of alkanes with similar molecular weights. • Arrange the compounds of each group in order of increasing boiling points • Ethanol, 1-propanol, methanol • Butane, ethylene glycol, 1-propanol • Which member of each of the following pairs would you expect to be more soluble in water? • Butane or 2-butanol • 2-propanol or 2-pentanol • 2-butanol or 2,3-butanediol
Chemistry II Bell ActivityOctober 27, 2011 • What is the irritant in poison ivy? • What is the aqueous form of phenol? • Which of the solvents causes you to go blind if you drink it? • This is also called grain alcohol? • The antifreeze that is safe for pets. • What is the common name for 2-propanol? tetrahydrourushiol Carbolic acid methanol ethanol Propylene glycol Isopropyl alcohol
Chemistry II Bell ActivityOctober 28, 2011 • This is used in mouthwash and also treats hookworms • The antifreeze that is safe around pets and animals • This lowers the cholesterol and found in red wine • This is a powerful explosive and is used to treat angina pectoris (heart conditions) • This is known as wood alcohol 4-n-hexylrescorcinol Propylene glycol resveratol nitroglycerin methanol
Chemistry II Bell ActivityOctober 31, 2011 • One of the earliest antiseptics but no longer used b/c it burns the skin. • What is the sticky black stuff on railroad ties and telephone poles? • A moisturizing agent used to help babies poop. • This is now used as a germicide for cleaning (floors). • This was added to mouthwash to make it taste bad b/c we all know that if it tastes bad it works better. Carbolic acid creosote glycerin Lysol menthol
Chemistry II Bell ActivityNovember 15, 2011 • Is the carbonyl group polar or nonpolar? • Can secondary alcohols oxidize into ketones? • Can we have cyclic ketones? • Is formalin is a gas at room temperature? • Does a ketone end in “anal” or “one”? • What is the IUPAC name for acetone? polar yes yes no “one” 2-propanone