Comprehension Instruction. Comprehension refers to the process by which the reader constructs or assigns meaning by interacting with the text . Readers have a purpose for reading. Readers are actively thinking as they read.
Comprehension refers to the process by which the reader constructs or assigns meaning by interacting with the text.
Using their experiences and knowledge of the world to make sense of the text.
Before reading- clarifying the purpose for reading and previewing the text.
During reading- monitoring their understanding, adjusting their speed to fit the difficulty of the text, and “fixing-up” any problems they have.
After reading- checking their understanding of what they have read.
The following six strategies appear to improve text comprehension:
Monitoring comprehension- knowing when you understand what you read and when you don’t.
Using graphic and semantic organizers- to illustrate concepts and interrelationships, using diagrams and other pictorial devices.
Generating questions- readers asking their own questions improves active processing of the text.
Recognizing story structure- readers who can recognize and organize story structure understand and have a better memory of the text.
Summarizing- synthesizing important ideas and condensing this information in one’s own words.
together in cooperative learning groups or partners.
Multiple-strategies or “reciprocal teaching”:
*students use these strategies flexibly as needed
This activity promotes thinking and involvement for all.
Text-to-self, text-to-world, and text-to-text connections.
Preview the text and ask students what they know about the topic or the author.
Discuss the important vocabulary used in the text.
Use pictures or diagrams to prepare for the reading.
Good readers form mental pictures as they read.
Younger readers who visualize during reading, understand and remember what they read.
Urge students to picture a setting, character, or events described in the text.
Guided imagery lessons can be integrated within the normal school day.
ELL students can decode and even become fluent oral readers, but they may not truly comprehend the material, they may not be able to read between the lines, infer meaning, or detect the author’s message.
English Language Learners bring different levels of resources to the classroom:
English proficiency (Beginning, Intermediate, or Advanced)
Ability to read and write in their first language.
(BICS-basic interpersonal communication skills) and academic purposes (CALP-cognitive academic language).
Start from the known plus 1 .
Bos, C.S., & Vaughn, S. (2002). Teaching Students with Learning and Behavior Problems. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Balajthy, E., & Lipa-Wade, S. (2003). Struggling Readers: Assessment and Instruction in Grades K-6. New York: Guilford Press.
Catts, H.W., & Kamhi, A.G.. (1999). Language and Reading Disabilities. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Cooper, J.D. (2000). Literacy: Helping Children Construct Meaning. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Cunningham, P., & Allington, R.L. (2003). Classrooms that Work: They can all read and write. New York: Harper Collins.
Freeman, Yvonne & Freeman, D. (1994). Between Worlds: Access to Second Language Acquisition. Portsmouth, NH: Heineman.
Peregoy, S., & Boyle, O. (2001). Reading, Writing and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K-12 Teachers. New York: Longman.
Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read (2001). The Partnership for Reading: National Institute for Literacy; National Institute for Child Health and Human Development; and the U.S. Department of Education.