Chapter 15 Study Guide The Nation Breaking Apart 1846-1861
Section 1 - Growing Tensions Between North and South Find Out: • How the abolitionist movement heightened tensions between the North and South • The controversies over slavery in the territories • How the Wilmot Proviso and potential statehood for California deepened regional divisions • Analyze the Compromise of 1850
1. What did both the North and the South rely on heavily for their economies? How was it different in the South? • Over the centuries, the Northern and Southern sections of the United States had developed into two very different cultural and economic regions • There were also differences in geography and climate, as well as religious differences • Rural plantation economy • Relied on slave labor • “Peculiar Institution” created tension • Southerners feared that the loss of slavery would mean loss of culture • Both the North and the South relied on agriculture but the South relied more on plantation agriculture. James Hopkinson's Plantation. Planting sweet potatoes. Library of Congress
THE NORTH BEFORE THE WAR2. What led to the rapid growth of Northern cities? Why did Eastern and Midwestern states develop strong ties with each other? • The North had a more diverse economy • Industry flourished • Openly opposed slavery in the South and the new territories • More urbanized than South • Immigration fueled Northern population growth. • Immigrants and Easterners moved west and built farms in the new states formed from the Northwest Territory. They used the canals and railroads that ran mostly east and west. BOSTON HARBOR
3. Describe how the South developed differently than the North? • A few wealthy planters controlled Southern society, making great profits from the labor of slaves. Much of the profit came from trade, especially cotton. • 4. Most Southern whites were poor farmers who owned no slaves. But even many of the nonslaveholding whites supported slavery because it kept them off the bottom of society.
Antislavery and racism 5. What view did most abolitionists have of slavery • Antislavery movement gained strength in North since 1830’s • Abolitionists felt slavery was unjust and should immediately be abolished (North)
6. Why did many Northern workers and immigrants oppose slavery? It posed an economic threat to them because slaves did not work for pay. They feared managers would employ slaves rather than them or they would become slaves. 7. Despite their opposition to slavery, most Northerners, even abolitionists were racist by modern standards.
8. Slaverholders defended slavery. Most offered the openly racist argument that white people were superior to blacks. Many also claimed that slavery helped slaves by introducing them to Christianity, as well as providing them with food, shelter, and clothing.
9. What caused new disagreements to arise over slavery in the 1840's? • The outbreak of War with Mexico and new territories won from Mexico and the expansion of slavery in the territories caused disagreements in Congress • The issue of whether slavery in California and the West would be legal led to heated debates in Congress • Gold rush led to application for statehood for California
David Wilmot was a representative from the state of Pennsylvania. He proposed that slavery should not be allowed in any territory won in the War with Mexico. (10) Angry slaveholders protested that the government had no right to tell them what to do with their own property since slaves were considered property. The measure passed the House but failed in the Senate. (11) – Library of Congress Prints and Photographs 10. What did David Wilmot propose? 11. How did slaveholders feel about Wilmot's Proviso?
The Wilmot Proviso • Proposed by Penn. Rep. David Wilmot • Most disagreements settled with Compromise of 1820 • New land won from Mexico caused tension over spread of slavery for many Northerners • Wilmot proposed to outlaw the spread of slavery in any territory won from War with Mexico • Southerners argued that slaves were property
12. What was an effect of the Wilmot Proviso? • Slave holders said the government couldn’t prevent them from taking property anywhere they wanted • Said Wilmot Proviso would be unconstitutional • Divided Congress along regional lines • Passed in House of Reps but not in Senate • Wilmot’s Proviso led to creation of Free Soil Party to stop expansion of slavery • Made slavery a national issue
13. What did the addition of new states in territories won from Mexico threaten? • 1848 Nation debates what to do with land won from Mexico • Addition of new states threatened balance of power between Northern and Southern states • Gold discovered in California would soon cause it to apply for statehood as its population grew • Most in California wanted to be a free state and applied in 1850 • Balance of power between slave and free states would be upset which create an imbalance in Congress, especially the Senate
COMPROMISE OF 1850 • Southerners threatened secession over issue • Henry Clay again worked a Compromise (15) • For the North: California would be admitted as free state (16) • For the South: A more effective fugitive slave law (16) • Residents of New Mexico & Utah would vote themselves (16) • The slave trade would be abolished in Washington D. C.(16) CONGRESSIONAL DEBATE The United States Senate, A.D. 1850 – Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
Compromise of 1850 • Proposed by Henry Clay (The Great Compromiser) • California admitted as a free state • Slave trade ended in Washington, D.C. • Congress would allow popular sovereignty regarding slavery for the rest of the territories won from Mexico • Stronger fugitive slave laws passed Henry Clay, known as the Great Compromiser for coming up with the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Years and years in the Senate can surely age a man! Henry Clay – Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
Compromise of 1850 cont. • Northerners now feel they are part of slavery because of fugitive slave law • Daniel Webster supports measure for good of country (17) • Bill pushed through by Stephen Douglas of Illinois (17) • Many felt the Union was saved Daniel Webster supported the Compromise of 1850 for the good of the country. Stephen Douglas helped his friend Henry Clay by pushing the bill through Congress. Notes and images from Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
UNDERGROUND RAILROAD • Escape from slavery was dangerous and meant traveling on foot at night • As time went on, African Americans and white abolitionists developed a secret network of people who would hide fugitive slaves • ”Conductors” would hide runaways in tunnels and even cupboards
HARRIET TUBMAN • One of the most famous conductors was Harriet Tubman • Tubman escaped slavery and vowed to help others do the same • She made 19 trips back to South and freed over 300 slaves (Including her own parents) HARRIET TUBMAN 1820-1913