A Divided Nation Chapter 15 A Study Guide
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 • The Fugitive Slave Act made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed officials to arrest those slaves in free areas. • Northerners were uncomfortable with the commissioners’ powers. • Northerners disliked the idea of a trial without a Jury. • Northerners disapproved of commissioners’ higher fees for returning slaves.
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 • Most northerners were horrified that some free African Americans had been capture and sent to the South. • Many Northern states enacted laws that nullified its effect, making it worthless. • The refusal of northern states to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act was alleged by South Carolina as one reason for its secession from the Union. • When Anthony Burns, a fugitive slave was arrested, some abolitionist tried to use force to rescue him. The event persuaded many to join the abolitionist cause.
Dred Scott Decision • Dred Scott an enslaved man sued for his freedom after his slaveholder died. The Supreme Court ruled that African Americans whether free or slaves were not considered citizens of the U.S., and therefore had no right to sue in Federal Court. • Most white Southerners cheered and rejoiced at the decision. • Abolitionist denounced the verdict and even went as far as discrediting the legitimacy of the Supreme Court itself. • Some Northerners feared that the spread of slavery would not stop with the federal territories. • Roger B. Taney pointed out the Fifth Amendment said no one could ‘be deprived of life, liberty, or property with due process of law.
John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry • On October 16, 1859, abolitionist John Brown and 21 men took over the arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia in hopes of starting a slave rebellion. Colonel Robert E. Lee ordered a squad of marines to storm Harpers Ferry killing two men and capturing the rest. Brown was convicted of treason and hanged. • Most northerners mourned John Brown’s death, but some abolitionist criticized his extreme actions. • Many Southerners felt threatened and began talking about leaving the Union.
1. What idea did the Wilmot Proviso propose? Page 476 • To prohibit slavery in all parts of the Mexican Cession
2. How did the idea of popular sovereignty affect slavery in the United States? Page 478 • States or territories would decide whether to permit slavery
3. Why did members of the Free-Soil Party support the abolition of Slavery? Page 477 • For fear that slave labor would have taken white workers’ jobs
4. What did Henry clay contribute to the Compromise of 1850? Page 478 • Proposing that California enter the Union as a free state
5. Why did most northerners oppose the Fugitive Slave Act? Page 480 • Gave commissioners too much power and should have allowed slaves the right to jury trials
6. Why was the case of Anthony Burns significant? Page 480 • It persuaded many to join the abolitionist cause
7. What did Harriet Beecher Stowe do to influence the debate over slavery? Page 481-482 • Exposed the harsh reality of slave life
8. Why did Southern Democrats trust Franklin Pierce to represent their party in the Election of 1852? Page 483-484 • Promised to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act
9. A. Which part of the nation were all free territories in 1850?B. Which part of the nation was mainly slave states? Map Pages 484-485
9. A. Which part of the nation were all free territories in 1850?B. Which part of the nation was mainly slave states? Map Pages 484-485 • Northwestern • Southeastern
10. Why did the Whigs not choose President Millard Fillmore for their candidate in the Election of 1852? Page 484 • His strict enforcement of fugitive slave laws would cost votes.
11. What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act lead to? Page 485 • Return of slavery issue between the North and South
12. What was the result of the Pottawatomie Massacre? Page 487 • Kansas collapsed into civil war and many citizens were killed
13. What changes occurred to political parties in the U.S. after the Kansas-Nebraska Act? Page 488 • The Republican Party formed
14. What were the goals of the Republican Party in 1854? Page 488 • Spread of slavery in the west
15. What did the Dred Scott v. Sandford ruling establish? Page 489, 490 • The Missouri Compromise’s restriction on slavery was unconstitutional
16. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney argued in 1857 that Congress could not prohibit someone from taking slaves into a federal territory. What was his reason? Page 490 • Federal territories could not rule against slavery
17. What did Lincoln accuse Democrats of wanting to do during the Lincoln-Douglas debates? Page 491 • Spread slavery in the West
18. What did the Freeport Doctrine, proposed by Stephen Douglas, state? Page 492 • The decision to practice slavery in the territories belonged to the people
19. Why was John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry a failure? Page 493 • He did not have enough supporters for his cause • About 20 men
20. What did southerners fear after John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry? Page 494 • The safety of the South was in jeopardy, and another attack from the North might occur.
21. What was the significance of the Election of 1860? Page 495 • It showed that the South was losing its political power in the nation.
22. A. which candidate had the most popular votes?B. Which candidate had the most electoral votes?C. Which candidate had the greatest % of popular votes?D. Who won the Election of 1860? Map Page 495 • Lincoln • Lincoln • Lincoln • Lincoln
23. Why did the southern states decide to secede from the Union after the Election of 1860? Page 496 • The southern economy and way of life would be destroyed.
24. Newly elected President Lincoln affirmed that ____________ . Page 496 • Newly elected President Lincoln affirmed that citizens have the right to overthrow the government.
25. When Lincoln was elected in 1860, he stated that government would do what? Page 497 • Not start a war with the southern states
26. How did Senators John C. Calhoun and Daniel Webster differ in their reactions to the Compromise of 1850? Page 478-479 • Senator Calhoun, a southerner, strongly opposed the Compromise of 1850 because it would upset the nation’s balance of slave and free states. He argued that the South should be allowed to separate peacefully from the Union. • Senator Webster, a northerner, supported the Compromise of 1850 because it would preserve the Union. Webster criticized Calhoun and others who talked of secession.
27. What new political party was formed by Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, and other abolitionists after the Kansas-Nebraska Act? Page 488 • The Republican Party
28. Why was Abraham Lincoln successful in the election of 1860? Page 495 • In the election of 1860, the Democrats could not agree upon a single candidate, so the party divided into Southern and Northern Democrats. This act split the Democratic vote between two candidates.The Republicans united to support Lincoln and he won both the popular vote and the electoral college vote.
29. What does secession mean? Page 477 • Secession is the act of formally withdrawing from the Union.
30. What was the Freeport Doctrine? Page 492 • The Freeport Doctrine was the idea that political power belongs to the people.
31. Why was Stephen Douglas important? Pages 484, 491-492 • Douglas was a U.S. senator from Illinois who proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
32. What was the Wilmot Proviso? Page 476 • The Wilmot Proviso was a document that stated that slavery could not exist in any part of the Mexican Cession.
33. Why was Jefferson Davis important? Page 497 • Davis was a Mississippi native elected President of the Confederacy.
34. What was the Fugitive Slave Act? Page 479 • The Fugitive Slave Act was a law that made it a crime to assist runaway slaves.
35. What was the significance of John Brown’s raid? Page 493-494 • John Brown’s raid was a rebellion staged by a group of abolitionist at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
36. What was the Free-Soil Party? Page 477 • The Free-Soil Party was a political group formed by antislavery northerners who supported the Wilmot Proviso.