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Psychological Disorders:Part 1. Music : “Crazy” By Seal “Crazy” By Gnarles Barkley. Agenda. 1. What is Abnormal? Criteria / Classification 2. Anxiety Disorders: Generalized Anxiety/ Phobias/ Obsessive Compulsive Disorders 3. Somatoform Disorders

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psychological disorders part 1

Psychological Disorders:Part 1

Music: “Crazy”

By Seal

“Crazy”

By Gnarles Barkley

agenda
Agenda
  • 1. What is Abnormal?
    • Criteria / Classification
  • 2. Anxiety Disorders:
    • Generalized Anxiety/ Phobias/ Obsessive Compulsive Disorders
  • 3. Somatoform Disorders
    • Somatization Disorders/ Hypochondriasis
  • 4. Dissociative Disorders
    • Multiple Personality Disorder
  • 5. Mood Disorders
    • Depression/ Bipolar Disorders /Suicide
  • 6. Tutorial
1 what is abnormal
1. What IS Abnormal??
  • Criteria:
    • 1) Distress is present:
      • Person is suffering, unhappy, afraid
    • 2) Behaviour is maladaptive
      • Impaired functioning
      • Inability to meet responsibilities
    • 3) Socially Deviant
      • Behaviour is unusual, “not normal”
  • Classification
    • DSM-IV, p. 580
    • Why Classify?
      • Simplify and create order
      • Research
      • Plan treatment
criteria for abnormality
Criteria for Abnormality
  • Fig. 14.2 p. 578
1 classification cont d
1. Classification (cont’d)
  • Older Distinction:
    • Neurotic vs. Psychotic
  • Neurotic:
    • Distressing problem but person is still coherent and can function socially (once acute phase of disorder is treated).
    • E.g. most disorders discussed today
  • Psychotic:
    • More bizarre, involving delusions or halucinations. Individual has impaired thought processes and cannot function socially. Treatment is long term
    • E.g. schizophrenia (next week)
2 anxiety disorders
2. Anxiety Disorders
  • Anxiety:
    • Fear in situations that pose no objective threat
    • 3 components:
      • A) Cognitive:
        • Extreme/chronic worry; fear of harm
      • B) Physiological:
        • Muscle tension, increased heart rate and blood pressure
      • C) Behavioural:
        • Shaking, jumpiness, pacing, avoidance
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorders (5%)
    • Symptoms of anxiety felt continuously for at least 6 months
    • Excessive worry, restlessness, sleep disturbance that are difficult to control
2 anxiety disorders cont d
2. Anxiety Disorders (cont’d)
  • Panic Disorders: (2-3%)
    • Presence of recurrent, and unexpected panic attacks:
      • Intense dread, shortness of breath, chest pain, choking, fear of going crazy or losing control or dying, shaking, sweating, nausea…
    • May lead to Agoraphobia (fear of open spaces)
  • Phobic Disorders: (10%)
    • Fear of a particular object, animal or context which is irrational
    • Is causing distress and impairment in functioning
  • Social Phobia: (3-13%)
    • Fear of social or performance situations
      • Public speaking;
      • Eating, drinking, writing in public
2 anxiety disorders cont d10
2. Anxiety Disorders (cont’d)
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (2%)
    • Obsessions:
      • Persistent, uncontrollable thoughts
    • Compulsions:
      • Rituals, behaviours that reduce anxiety
      • Interfere with functioning
    • Thoughts and behaviours are not under voluntary control
3 somatoform disorders
3. Somatoform Disorders
  • Somatization Disorder:
    • (1-2% women)
    • History of diverse physical complaints for which there is NO organic basis
    • Long medical history of treatments for minor physical ailments
  • Hypochondriasis:
    • 4-9% in medical practice
    • Inordinate preoccupation with health and illness
    • excessive anxiety about having a disease
4 dissociative disorders
4. Dissociative Disorders
  • Multiple Personality Disorder (very rare)
    • Presence of at least 2 distinct personalities within the same individual
    • Leads to sudden changes in identity and consciousness
    • Each personality has its unique style and may unaware of the existence of the other personalities
    • Often related to severe abuse in early childhood
5 mood disorders
5. Mood Disorders
  • Depression
    • Lifetime prevalence rates
      • 20% in women; 10% in men
    • Why more common in women?
      • Cost of caring
        • Greater burden due to nurturing roles
        • Also more affected by disruptions in relational ties
      • Ruminative cognitive style
        • as opposed to distraction or taking action
        • Perpetuates negative mood
      • More likely to report symptoms
  • Seasonal Affective Disorders (SAD)
    • Depressive symptoms related to physiological consequences of shorter winter days
    • Treatable with light therapy
5 theories of depression
5. Theories of Depression
  • Biological predisposition
    • Concordance rates in twins:
      • Identical: 65%
      • Fraternal: 15%
  • Cognitive Perspective
    • Beck: Negative (dysfunctional) attitudes
    • Seligman: Attribution Theory
      • How do you explain your circumstances?
        • Internal vs external
        • Stable vs unstable
        • Global vs specific
      • Depression: internal, stable, global attributions for negative events
    • Diathesis-stress models
      • Depression results from an interaction between personality and negative life events
        • Dependency and vulnerability to loss
        • Self-Criticism/Perfectionism and vulnerability to perceived failure
cognitive risk and depression
Cognitive Risk and Depression
  • Featured Study p. 596
    • Those with dysfunctional attitudes and depressive attributional style were more likely to become depressed over 2 year period.
5 mood disorders cont d
5. Mood Disorders (cont’d)
  • Bipolar Disorders:
    • Periods of depression alternate with manic episodes
    • Mania:
      • abnormally elevated mood, inflated self-esteem, pressure of speech, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, over-activity, lack of inhibition and impaired judgment
    • Prevalence rates:
      • 1% in men and women
      • Strong genetic component
        • Understood as a primarily biological disorder
        • Unlike unipolar depression which has cognitive, interpersonal and environmental determinants
5 suicide
5. Suicide
  • University students:
    • 40-50% have had suicidal thoughts
    • 15% attempt suicide
  • Major Risk Factors:
    • Drug or alcohol use including cigarette smoking
    • A prior attempt
    • Depression/ hopelessness (pessimism)
    • Aggressiveness or impulsivity
    • Family history
    • Shame, humiliation, failure or rejection
5 suicide cont d
5. Suicide (cont’d)
  • How to help:
    • 1) Establish communication
      • Talk about suicidal wishes
    • 2) Identify needs that have been frustrated
      • Search for love, recognition, respect?
    • 3) Broaden suicidal person’s perspective
      • Impermanence of feelings
        • It won’t last
      • Other solutions?
6 tutorial
6. Tutorial
  • Until next week:

be well...