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FIREFIGHTER SAFETY AWARENESS. DW Kerr November 2005 Point Pleasant Fire Company #1. MAJOR CAUSES OF FIREFIGHTER INJURY/DEATHS. Motor Vehicle Accidents - POVs/Apparatus Cardiovascular/Overexertion Lost & Disorientated In Fire Structures Flashovers/Backdraft/Structural Collapse

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firefighter safety awareness

FIREFIGHTER SAFETYAWARENESS

DW Kerr

November 2005

Point Pleasant Fire Company #1

major causes of firefighter injury deaths
MAJOR CAUSES OF FIREFIGHTER INJURY/DEATHS
  • Motor Vehicle Accidents - POVs/Apparatus
  • Cardiovascular/Overexertion
  • Lost & Disorientated In Fire Structures
  • Flashovers/Backdraft/Structural Collapse
  • Trauma – Falls/Lacerations/Burns
  • Infectious Disease

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

personal safety
PERSONAL SAFETY

YOUR RESPONSIBILITY

  • Observe Incident Command
  • Use Personal Protective Equipment (Turnouts/SCBAs/PASS device/Radio)
  • Comply with accountability
  • Stay with apparatus and crew
  • Observe procedures
  • Know your limits - 2 bottles – rehab
  • Have an exit plan
  • Think then act

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

injury life prevention options
INJURY & LIFE PREVENTION OPTIONS
  • Adopt Safety Culture
  • Safe driving/use of seat belts
  • Physical fitness/routine exams/eating/smoking
  • Personal protective equipment
  • Fire ground safety procedures
  • Immunizations & infection control

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

adopt a safety culture
ADOPT A SAFETY CULTURE
  • Attitude
  • Awareness
  • Actions
  • Accountable

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

motor vehicle accidents
MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS
  • Speed
  • Driver and driving conditions
  • Seat belt usage
  • Backing-up – Use a spotter
  • Civilian vehicles at scene –
    • Not seen - be visible/have an escape route
    • Struck by - stay out of the way/block with apparatus
  • Apparatus – Too fast for GVW

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

health life prevention
HEALTH & LIFE PREVENTION
  • Routine Physical Exams
  • Lifestyles
    • Diet
    • Exercise
    • Smoking/alcohol
  • Immunizations/ vaccinations

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

personal safety equipment
PERSONAL SAFETY EQUIPMENT
  • Turnout Gear - hoods
  • SCBA
  • PASS device
  • Buddy breathing connection
  • Radio – Distress button
  • Lighting
  • Tools
  • TI Camera
  • Rope/webbing/carbineer -TBD

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

lost or disoriented in fire structure
LOST OR DISORIENTED IN FIRE STRUCTURE
  • Incident Command
    • Duration of burn
    • Signals upon arrival
    • Color of smoke
    • Thermal damage
    • Physical damage
  • Risk Management
    • Risk little to save little
  • Tactical
    • Staffing
    • Level of water/ventilation provided
    • Exits available – provided and created

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

recognizing potential flashover
RECOGNIZING POTENTIAL FLASHOVER
  • Def: All surfaces reaching their ignition temperature simultaneously

Warning Signs:

  • Flames in overhead
  • Sudden increases in heat generation
  • Sudden lowering of the smoke layer

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

recognizing potential backdrafts
RECOGNIZING POTENTIAL BACKDRAFTS
  • Def: Fuel rich smoke with limited oxygen content

Warning Signs:

  • Heavy smoke stained windows
  • Glass crazing
  • Puffing/pulsing smoke
  • Pressurized smoke
  • Black smoke becomes dense gray

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

structural collapse
STRUCTURAL COLLAPSE
  • Incident Command –duration of burn
  • Size-up – interior/exterior conditions/signs
  • Light weight construction- truss/masonry veneer walls/chimneys
  • Sound out floor/surfaces upon entry
  • Be aware of area capacity – standing water & personnel
  • Heavy suspended mechanical equipment
  • Fall-down zone – 1.75 X.

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

fireground safety procedures
FIREGROUND SAFETY PROCEDURES
  • Incident Command
  • Accountability System
  • 2-in-2 out rule
  • Teams with radio
  • Teamwork - staying together or on apparatus
  • Use PPE/Turnout gear
  • Use SCBAs/PASS devices
  • Plan Escape routes - ladders/lighting
  • 2 bottle rule - rehab

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

accountabilty
ACCOUNTABILTY
  • 3 Tags
    • Helmet - apparatus
    • Coat – entry into hazardous area
    • Bunker pants – permanent identifier
  • Apparatus ring
  • Entry area ring
  • PAR – personnel accountability record
  • Safety/Accountability Officer
  • Used for all types of operations
    • Marine/technical rescue

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

lost firefighter actions
LOST FIREFIGHTER ACTIONS
  • Stay calm – preserve air supply/ skip breathing/filtered
  • Stay with partner/crew
  • Activate PASS device
  • Monitor radio/Update Command
  • Initiate MAYDAY- activate distress button
  • Use hose line to follow back
  • Use flashlight to signal rescuers
  • Use tools to alert rescuers
  • Locate an exit – openings/exterior walls
  • Get to lower level– except for basement
  • Take defensive position/location

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

standard side determinations
STANDARD SIDE DETERMINATIONS

KNOW YOUR LOCATION!!!

  • A - Front/street side
  • B - left side – clockwise from A
  • C - rear side – clockwise from AB
  • D - right side - clockwise from ABC
  • 1,2,3… indicate levels above ground

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

locating lost firefighers
LOCATING LOST FIREFIGHERS
  • RIT/FAST Assistance Required
  • Last known location
  • Tracing hose lines
  • Evidence of location described by the lost FF
  • Listen for audible sounds of FF (shouting/tapping)/PASS/SCBA alarm
  • Listen for portable radio messages
  • Flashlight beams
  • Planned searches

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

firefighter rescue techniques
FIREFIGHTER RESCUE TECHNIQUES
  • HOSE LIFT
  • HANDCUFF LIFTS
  • SCBA HARNESS SLIDE/LIFT
  • WEBBING/CARABINEER ON SCBA
  • HIGH POINT LADDER RETRIEVAL
  • WALL BREACHING
  • WINDOW CUT-OUT

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

communciations
COMMUNCIATIONS

PRIORITY VS. MAYDAY

  • Water supply problem Lost/disoriented
  • Important message Low or out of air
  • Impending collapse Structural Collapse
  • Change in fire conditions Rapid fire change

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

mayday communications
MAYDAY COMMUNICATIONS
  • YOUR IDENTIFICATION
  • YOUR PROBLEM
  • YOUR LOCATION

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

trauma
TRAUMA
  • Falls
    • Ladders – use spotters/tie off/leg locks
    • Apparatus – use steps & railings/get help
  • Cuts/lacerations
    • Gloves/boots
  • Crushing injuries
    • Beware of collapse zones
    • Stay away from under suspended loads

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

infectious disease
INFECTIOUS DISEASE
  • Blood/body fluids – Hand/eye protection
      • Plastic gloves under work gloves
      • Treatment of cuts/lacerations – seek physician atten
      • Wash hands after calls
      • Decontamination/discard soiled gear/equipment
  • Waterborne
      • Dry suits
      • No open wounds
      • Treatment of injuries
      • Immunizations
      • Decontaminate

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005

summary
SUMMARY
  • FF is a team activity
  • All members must play as a team
  • Everyone has the accountability & responsibility for the well-being of self and other team members
  • Command must be observed
  • Procedures must be observed
  • PPE must be used

Firefighter Safety Awareness - November 2005