Ladder Safety Awareness Industrial Hygiene & Occupational Health, Inc.
1926.1050 Scope, applications, and definitions, applicable to this subpart 1926.1051 General requirements 1926.1052 Stairways 1926.1053 Ladders 1926.1054 Reserved 1926.1055 Reserved 1926.1056 Reserved 1926.1057 Reserved 1926.1058 Reserved 1926.1059 Reserved 1926.1060 Training 1926 Subpart X - App A - Ladders OSHA Regulations 29 CFR Part 1926 Subpart X - Stairways and Ladders
1926.1050(b) Definitions "Cleat" means a ladder crosspiece of rectangular cross section placed on edge upon which a person may step while ascending or descending a ladder. "Double-cleat ladder" means a ladder similar in construction to a single-cleat ladder, but with a center rail to allow simultaneous two-way traffic for employees ascending or descending. Double cleat Single cleat
Job made ladder Filler block Rung Side rail
1926.1050(b) Definitions "Extension trestle ladder" means a self-supporting portable ladder, adjustable in length consisting of a trestle ladder base and a vertically adjustable extension section, with a suitable means for locking the ladders together.
1926.1051(a) Provide a stairway or ladder at all personnel points of access where there is a break in elevation of 19 inches (48 cm) or more, and no ramp, runway, sloped embankment, or personnel hoist is provided. Break in elevation 19 inches
1926.1052 - Stairways (a)(1) Stairways must have landings of not less than 30 inches (76 cm) in the direction of travel and extend at least 22 inches (56 cm) in width at every 12 feet (3.7 m) or less of vertical rise. Landing
1926.1052 - Stairways (a)(1) Stairways that will not be a permanent part of the structure on which construction work is being performed shall have landings of not less than 30 inches (76 cm) in the direction of travel and extend at least 22 inches (56 cm) in width at every 12 feet (3.7 m) or less of vertical rise.
19126.1052(a)(4) Where doors or gates open directly on a stairway, a platform shall be provided, and the swing of the door shall not reduce the effective width of the platform to less than 20 inches (51 cm).
1926.1052(a)(7) Eliminate slippery conditions on stairways before the stairways are used to reach other levels.
1926.1052(c)-Stairrails and handrails Stairways having four or more risers or rising more than 30 inches (76 cm), whichever is less At least one handrail; and One stairrail system along each unprotected side or edge.
1926.1052(c)(5) Handrails and the top rails of stairrail systems must be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds applied within 2 inches (5 cm) of the top edge, in any downward or outward direction, at any point along the top edge.
1926.1052(.b)(1) Except during stairway construction, foot traffic is prohibited on stairways with pan stairs where the treads and/or landings are to be filled in with concrete or other material at a later date, unless the stairs are temporarily fitted with wood or other solid material at least to the top edge of each pan. Pan
1926.1053 Ladders (a)(2) Ladder rungs, cleats, and steps must be parallel, level, and uniformly spaced when the ladder is in position for use. (a)(3)(i) Rungs, cleats, and steps of portable ladders must be spaced not less than 10 inches (25 cm) apart, nor more than 14 inches (36 cm) apart, as measured between center lines of the rungs, cleats and steps.
1926.1052(a)(12) Coating of Ladders Wood ladders must not be coated with any opaque covering, except for identification or warning labels which may be placed on one face only of a side rail.
1926.1053(b) Use (b)(12) If ladders are used where the employee or the ladder could contact exposed energized electrical equipment, they must have nonconductive siderails, except as provided in 1926.951(c)(1) of this part.
1926.1053(b)13 Use - Do not use the top or top step of a stepladder as a step.
1926.1053(b) Use - (b)(14) Do not use cross-bracing on the rear section of stepladders for climbing unless the ladders are designed and provided with steps for climbing on both front and rear sections. Back rungs designed to be used
1926.1053(b) Use (b)(15) Must be inspected by a competent person for visible defects, e.g., broken or missing rungs, cleats, or steps, broken or split rails, corroded components, or other faulty or defective components. (b)(17) Withdraw from service until repaired: fixed ladders with structural defects, e.g., broken or missing rungs, cleats, or steps, broken or split rails, or corroded components. (b)(17)(i) Tag immediately with "Do Not Use" or similar language. (b)(17)(ii) Mark in a manner that readily identifies it as defective. Remove from service
1926.1053(b) Use (b)(20) Face the ladder when ascending or descending. (b)(21) Use at least one hand to grasp the ladder when progressing up and/or down the ladder. (b)(22) Do not carry any object or load that could cause you to lose balance and fall.
1926.1060 Training (a) Must train each employee using ladders and stairways, as necessary, to recognize hazards related to ladders and stairways, and the procedures to be followed to minimize these hazards. (a)(1) A competent person must train each employee in the following areas, as applicable: (a)(1)(i) The nature of fall hazards in the work area; (a)(1)(ii) The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the fall protection systems to be used; (a)(1)(iii) The proper construction, use, placement, and care in handling of all stairways and ladders; (a)(1)(iv) The maximum intended load-carrying capacities of ladders and (a)(1)(v) The standards contained in this subpart. (b) Retrain each employee as necessary to maintain the understanding and knowledge acquired through compliance with this section.
Ladder Accidents Nationally 2007 No. 1 cause of LTA’s 308 PEOPLE KILLED 175,057 INJURED 22% at many companies
Physics of a Fall Distance Time Velocity Speed Impact Force • 1 foot .25 sec. 8 fps 5.5 mph 400 lbs. • 4 feet .5 sec. 16 fps 11 mph 1,600 lbs. • 6 feet .61 20 fps 14 mph 2,400 lbs. • 9 feet .75 sec. 24 fps 16 mph 3,600 lbs. • 25 feet 1.25 sec. 40 fps 27 mph 10,000 lbs. • 49 feet 1.75 sec. 56 fps 38 mph 19,600 lbs.
LADDER LENGTH STEP LADDER SIZE APPROX. HIGHEST STANDING LEVEL 1’11” 3’9” 5’8” 7’7” 9’6” 11’5” 13’4” 4’ 6’ 8’ 10’ 12’ 14’ 16’
LADDER LENGTH Industrial Hygiene & Occupational Health, Inc.
CHOOSING THE LADDER MATERIAL • Wood • Fiberglass • Aluminum • Steel
Insure a Safe Ladder Set-Up Industrial Hygiene & Occupational Health, Inc.
Insure a Safe Ladder Set-Up Who would ever set up a ladder like this ???!!!
Insure a Safe Ladder Set-Up ACCESSORIES FOR YOUR LADDER • LADDER LEVELERS • CABLE GRIPS • POLE GRABS • TOP STABILIZERS • PAIL SHELVES • LADDER LASH • BOTTOM SHOES
Improper Ladder Usage Extension ladder Straight ladder Closed step ladder IHOH
An Accident What Happened • A fiberglass A-frame ladder split halfway up the ridge of the leg rail, causing a worker on the ladder to fall to the rig floor. • The employee injured his wrist. IHOH
Ladder Inspection • Rungs must be intact and free from grease or oil. • Make sure there are no splinters or sharp edges. • See that metal ladders are not dented or bent. IHOH
Ladder Inspection • Safety feet should be in place. • All support braces and bolts must be present and secure. • On extension ladders, make sure rope is not torn or frayed. IHOH
Ladder Inspection • On stepladders, make sure the hinge spreader is working properly. IHOH