Laboratory Safety Awareness. For Staff in Engineering, Science and Medicine. Course Outcomes. At the end of this course you will be able to: Participate in safe laboratory conduct Select and use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE)
Laboratory Safety Awareness For Staff in Engineering, Science and Medicine
Course Outcomes At the end of this course you will be able to: Participate in safe laboratory conduct Select and use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) Identify , assess and control risks for plant, equipment and chemicals Develop good housekeeping practices Access safety literature including Australian Standards http://www.resources.labsafetyinstitute.org/23.html - accidents in labs
HS in your area What do you know about the HS systems for: Access to your lab facilities (or other restricted zones) Emergencies (evacuation, spills, contamination, fire) Chemicals Waste Protective clothing and equipment Managing hazards and risks Plant and Equipment Training Purchasing of laboratory supplies or new equipment What documentation exists for these (Government, UNSW, School, lab, etc. that you know of) HS729Laboratory Review form
HS in your area What HS documents should be in a laboratory or workshop: Register of RA’s and SWP’s Emergency procedures Chemicals register SDS’s Plant and Equipment register (no longer mandatory) Inspection, Testing and Maintenance schedule Equipment log books for use and maintenance Training records Equipment manuals
Safe Conduct Always wear appropriate clothing as well as Personal Protective Equipment Never adopt a casual attitude Do not store or consume food or drink Keep the laboratory locked Maintain good housekeeping practices, including cleaning up spills and disposing of wastes correctly Look after your visitors
Personal Protective Equipment Selection, use and storage for: Protective footwear Protective clothing Eye protection Gloves Respiratory protection Hearing protection Supporting UNSW Documentation: HS659 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Guideline http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJRXyJ9eZnM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1-GEltJlgXw
Personal Protective Equipment Group Exercise Discuss what you think are the essential pieces of PPCE for your lab. What do you consider to be the minimum PPCE to walk in your lab. Report back in 5 minutes
Personal Protective Equipment The least effective control measure – the hazard still exists. Protection in the laboratory for: Eyes Limb and body Hearing Respiratory PPCE needs to be: Suitable, properly maintained, meet standards Provided with training
Personal Protective Equipment Workers who rely on PPE must understand the functioning, proper use, and limitations of the PPE used. Protects only the wearer, and does not protect anyone else. Must be assessed on a case by case basis. Wearing PPCE outside the lab? Hazard present? Public exposed – not protected Contamination issues Fear in others
Protective Footwear How could this happen in a lab/workshop?
Protective Footwear - Selection Step 1: Identify workplace hazards, eg chemicals, slippery floors, falling objects, flying objects, sharp materials, oily surfaces, hot surfaces. Step 2: Use Australian Standard 2210 Part 1 to select the footwear type select the preferred upper and sole material and sole design Step 3: Factors to look at include: chemical resistance slip resistance penetration resistance electrical conductivity properties anti-static properties heat resistance
Protective Footwear - Types
Protective Clothing Lab coats are appropriate for minor chemical splashes and spills Plastic or rubber aprons are best for corrosive or irritating liquids. When cleaning and decontamination of reusable clothing is difficult, disposable outer garments may be useful Not to be stored on workbenches, backs of chairs etc.
Eye Protection Safety Glasses lenses are impact resistant and frames are far stronger should have side shields and should be worn whenever there is the possibility of objects striking the eye. not appropriate for dusts, powders or liquids Chemical Splash Goggles worn when there is potential for splash from a hazardous material chemical splash goggles should have indirect ventilation some may be worn over prescription glasses
Eye Protection Face Shields Use when working with cryogens or large volumes of hazardous materials, for protection from splash to face or flying particles Face shields should be used in conjunction with safety glasses or goggles Contact Lenses Contact lenses may be worn in the laboratory They do not offer any protection from chemical contact If contaminated with a hazardous chemical, rinse the eyes using an eyewash and remove the lens immediately Storage Safety glasses, goggles and Shields should be stored in a drawer/cupboard (i.e. not on bench) to avoid contamination
Eye Protection Asian nose bridge Vs Caucasian bridge
Gloves Gloves should be worn if there is a physical, chemical or temperature hazard For Chemical Hazards consider the following: degradation rating breakthrough time permeation rate Compatibility information For Physical and Temp hazards: Leather Fabric Insulation Loop pile
Gloves Dexterity – Grip – Size – Length Consider double gloving, replace outer glove if splashed Wear tight-fitting glove over loose glove to increase dexterity Ribbing, granular finish, felt Too tight causes fatigue Inspection – Use – Care – Storage Inspect before each use, test for pinholes Wash before removing Change disposables as soon as contamination occurs Do not touch other surfaces whilst wearing Do not store open glove containers near chemicals Ensure gloves are not stored on top of chemical containers
Respiratory Protection Initial Hazard Assessment This may involve measuring exposure levels. Respirator Selection half-face or full-face air purifying respirator, powered air purifying respirator, supplied air respirator or SCBA appropriate type of filter or chemical cartridge is selected Training and Fit-Testing Qualitative fit-testing using irritant smoke Positive and negative pressure checks HS Unit has the tools to undertake fit testing
Respiratory Protection Class P1 Filters particles from inhaled air. Must have a correct fit/seal on face. Beard/stubble make these ineffective. Surgical masks Filters particles from exhaled air Fluid resistant to infectious material splash or spatter Protects others from your microbes No protection from inhaled dusts unless also rated to P1.
Hearing Protection Workers exposed to loud or excessive noise must be provided with hearing protection Should be: compatible with the job hygienic comfortable able to provide audibility of warning noises HS708Noise Management Procedure
Risk Management Form When do you need to complete a risk management form? Who needs to write and approve the document? Things to remember when completing a risk management form: Specify type of PPE Refer to SDS and Manufacturers Manuals Consider hazard types Emergency Procedures Are all steps of the Activity addressed? Additional Controls if needed Review timeframes Review effectiveness of controls HS329 Risk Management Procedure HS017 Risk Management Form https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zrcoo-jDF14 – assessing risks of toxic chemicals
Safe Work Procedures The SWP is a control measure identified in the risk assessment and includes: Step by step instructions for undertaking the task safely Specific precautions required PPCE to be provided and worn Emergency shutdown Waste disposal Authorisation, training and review HS027 Safe Work Procedure Guideline HS026 Safe Work Procedure Form HS701Personal Protective Equipment signs Display them near the equipment. Some people even have a photo of the custodian on it.
Safe Work Procedures http://www.med.unsw.edu.au/ohswebsci.nsf http://www.med.unsw.edu.au/ohsweb.nsf
Safe Work Procedures
Plant Safety General Guidelines Control measures Electrical safety Gas Cylinders Fume Cupboards
Plant Safety Plant includes all machinery and equipment, both stationary and mobile, tools and implements used in the laboratory eg: Computers, manual handling equipment, microscopes, freezers, gas cylinders, ladders, drying ovens, autoclaves Injuries that result from unsafe plant range from minor burns and cuts to traumatic injuries such as broken bones, amputations and death eg: hit by moving plant, caught or crushed in plant, Cuts and bruises from hand tools, Strain and overuse injuries from poor posture and operating positions http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bqAsXMSs27s Pipetting ergonomics
Plant Guidelines Only use plant for which you have been trained Always use safety devices provided Wear appropriate clothing Wear the PPE provided Read the Safe Working Procedure provided Lock out/tag out procedure Consider safety as a priority in plant design Purchase plant with safety devices installed Budget for training of staff and students Assess competency of staff Ensure that maintenance can be done safely
Plant Safety 35
Plant Safety 36
Plant Safety 37
Plant Safety 38
Control Measures for Plant Guarding – prevents contact with hazardous parts or items ejected from the equipment. Operational controls – clear and functioning Emergency stops and warning devices - test regularly Mandatory design standards Operator competencies – SWP, certificates, licences Registration requirements – design, operational. Maintenance and repair Dismantling, storage and disposal HS327 Plant and Equipment Procedure HS728Design and Modification Guideline AS 2243.6 – Safety in Laboratories Plant and equipment aspects
Working at heights Management and Supervisors are responsible for ensuring that: Use of ladders should only be considered if other safer alternatives, such as scaffolding or elevating work platforms, are not reasonably practicable Risk Assessments are carried out for activities involving working at heights Safe Work Procedures or guidelines are developed specifically for these activities All identified Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment (PPCE) is available and in good order before work commences HS707 Working from Heights Guideline
Gas Cylinders Open valve fully then back off 2 turns Remove regulator to transport Use trolley for transport and push trolley in front of you Wear PPE to transport No oil or grease on oxygen regulators Do not drop, roll or drag cylinders Never transport in a lift with people Only keep cylinders “in use” in labs Check appropriateness of regulator to the cylinder Perform leak testing Don’t store or transport incompatible cylinders together Ensure valve shut
Electrical Safety Working safely with electricity Check that laboratory electrical equipment has been tagged (12 monthly min in labs). Do not use double adaptors – poorly designed with no overload protection Use RCDs on powerboards and extension leads Powerboards must be correctly mounted and checked to avoid overloading. Use extension cords as a temporary measure only Do not bring untested electrical equipment into the workplace
Electrical Safety Working safely with electricity Near potential water leaks or sprays, ensure the GPO is designed to avoid water ingress. (near distillation or rotary evaporators) Perform regular visual inspections for damage or discoloration. Ensure adequate ventilation around powerboards to prevent overheating. Lock out tag out systems, permit to work systems Management and treatment of electric shock
Electrical Safety Emergency Shut off and isolation buttons (what do they do):
Electrical Safety Safely disposing of equipment: Remove hazardous materials such as radiation sources, harmful fluids or laser diodes. Dispose of asbestos containing materials through proper channels. Decontaminate and cut the cords at the plug end AND at the equipment end and remove tags (update register).
Electrical Safety Receiving or passing on of second hand equipment: Examples of things to be checked are marking of rated voltage, rated frequency, all controls marked and functioning. confirm that the item is validated for use in Australia and where relevant it is fitted with a plug complying with AS/NZS 3112
Ignition Sources A source of energy sufficient to ignite combustible dusts, flammable vapours or gases etc. Examples include: (a) a naked flame, (b) exposed incandescent material, (c) hot surfaces, (d) radiant heat, (e) a spark from mechanical friction, (f) a spark from static electricity, (g) an electrical arc, (h) any electrical, electronic, mechanical or other equipment.
Other plant topics to discuss Glassware Under pressure or vacuum Storage Portable power tools Centrifuges Location, vibration, competence Heating equipment Heat guns, ovens, hot plates Pressure vessels Autoclaves, pressure cookers Vacuum apparatus Safety screens, cloth tape or cloth mesh, face protection Liquid traps, venting of exhausts, hazard zones UV sources (UV meter) Refrigerators (hazard zones) Ultrasonic baths (fingers!)
Spill preparedness and response All laboratories must have: Procedures for potential emergencies Spill kits Training sessions/drills to ensure all lab users know how to respond to an emergency UNSW Documentation: HS421 Chemical Spills Guideline HS301 PCB Spill Response and Disposal Procedure HS305 Spills Procedure – Mercury Science Faculty HS site http://www.med.unsw.edu.au/ohswebsci.nsf Medicine Faculty HS site http://ohs.med.unsw.edu.au/ohsweb.nsf
Spill preparedness and response Contain the spill Absorb the spill Dispose of used materials Report the spill Restock spill kit
Incident response Group activity: Discuss how you would deal with the following: A spill of 200mL of acetone inside a fume cupboard with electrical equipment operating. A spill of sodium hydroxide pellets on the floor. A spill of 500mL of strong acid on the bench and a splash of some of it onto the worker. Report back in 5 minutes.
Domestic Broken glass Sharps Chemical Biological Cytotoxic Animal carcasses Radioactive Schedule 8 Human tissue Co-mingled General laboratory waste Waste Segregation and Disposal All waste needs to be segregated into its waste stream according to the UNSW Hazardous Waste Procedure. Documentation: HS014Waste Disposal Form - Chemical – UNSW HS321Laboratory Hazardous Waste Disposal Guideline
Waste Disposal Chemical waste treatment and disposal Store the waste correctly – appropriate containers, bunding Label the waste accurately (contact name, date, inventory) Segregate the waste – do not mix incompatible chemicals Submit a chemical waste inventory form to Facilities Mgtvia email
Waste Disposal Options for biological waste treatment and disposal Bio-waste to go into a labelled bio-waste bag and put it into the yellow bins (these are collected by the contractor and autoclaved), or Autoclave the labelled bio-waste and put it into the yellow bins, or Autoclave the waste AND VALIDATE THE LOAD, then de-identify the waste by putting it into a robust black plastic bag which goes into the domestic waste Note: Chemically decontaminated liquid bio-waste is now chemical waste and must only be collected by the chemical contractor.
It’s all about the air flow Understanding how this equipment works is knowing where the air goes and how it is treated. Is it filtered, ducted, recirculated, cleaned? Which way does it go Turbulence and obstructions Cabinet Choice needs to be risk based http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q2Pp3wge2j8
Used for decanting & mixing: Volatile solvents Corrosive liquids Toxics if inhalation risk exists Control of Noxious odours It captures, dilutes and exhausts fumes to external atm. Bench Type Ducted Fume Hood
Max allowable volumes should be known E.g. max flammables 7.5L/m2 of base Pre use checks to be made Clean and free of contamination Enough space to work safely? Extinguisher handy? Chemicals not required are removed During use Minimum possible chemicals present Reduced reaction rates Sash position is important Use PPE to perform the work After use requirements too. Use of fume cupboards
Sash position is critical
Traffic is an issue too
Rely on filtration or absorption Discharge directly into the lab Suitable for light to moderate use with a limited range of substances Recirculating fume cabinets
Recirculating fume cabinets
Do Not Use: Where more than 50mL of corrosive liquids are involved in a rxn that generates fumes Where acid digestions are carried out For perchloric acid digestions For infectious organism handling For carcinogenic material (Cat 1 & 2) except where chemisorbed onto the filter For radioactive materials exceeding 10x Annual Limit of Intake for inhalation Where temp and humidity may affect filter operation Recirculating fume cabinets
Ensure substances used are compatible with filters used Do not use for storage Do not use after major spills – replace filters Treat spills in RFC’s as if they were on the bench! Determine filter saturation monthly if not fitted with auto monitors Avoid Bunsen use. Keep away from sides (15cm) and the filter (30cm). Keep a logbook of: Filter change, substances used, volumes used, hours of operation, spill records. Periodic monitoring of the exhaust Check filter efficiency test certificate sticker date (also for BSC’s) Recirculating fume cabinets
Recirculating fume cabinets This is NOT a fume cabinet Do not get them confused
Biological safety cabinets These DO NOT filter or absorb any hazardous fumes, vapours or gases. They recirculate 70% HEPA filtered air This also recirculates the vapours leading to hazardous atmospheres Also not spark proof, so can ignite the vapours 30% HEPA air is returned to the lab
Cytotoxic drug safety cabinet Intended specifically for handling injectable cytotoxic drugs, but may have wider application in the handling of other hazardous drugs and materials. These applications may require additional precautions.
Cytotoxic drug safety cabinet
Chemical Labelling 72
Information about chemicals - Labelling 73
You must label the following if they contain Hazardous Substances (except if they are used and cleaned immediately): Decanted substances Mixtures/formulations/preparations Research/laboratory samples and finished products Reaction intermediates and waste-products Substances in enclosed systems e.g. pipes and vessels containing hazardous substances HS429 Labelling of Hazardous Substances Guideline Labelling
Chemical Safety - Labelling Group Activity: A) Discuss what you regard as the minimum amount of information that should be on a container of decanted chemical: 1. 500mL bottle 2. 5mL vial B) How often would you consider it necessary to check and possibly repack or relabel a stored chemical
Chemical Safety - Labelling
Chemical Safety - Labelling
Labelling Manufacturer Signal words and/or DG Class– HAZARDOUS, WARNING, POISON, FLAMMABLE, TOXIC Chemical and trade names in full Risk & Safety phrases, UN # Emergency – spills, fire, leaks, equipment types to use First aid Dates?
Labelling decanted containers Signal words and/or DG Class, UN # – HAZARDOUS, WARNING, POISON, FLAMMABLE, TOXIC Chemical name (IUPAC or CAS) or technical names in full Risk & Safety phrases Emergency – spills, fire, leaks, equipment types to use First aid Dates? GHS?
Safety Data Sheets Must be accessible – hard copy or electronic Must be no more than 5 years old Must be used during risk assessment Helps decide on airborne contamination monitoring Check for adequacy of emergency and spill procedures Can be used as the risk assessment if used as directed Should go with an injured person to the doctor or hospital Need more information? Use other sources such as...
Chemical Safety - HSIS safeworkaustralia 87
Chemical Safety - HSIS http://www.hsis.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/SearchHS.aspx 88
Chemical Safety - HSIS 89
Safety Literature UNSW OHS website www.ohs.unsw.edu.au Australian Standards Available through OHS website WorkCover NSW website www.workcover.nsw.gov.au Safe Work Australia http://safeworkaustralia.gov.au/ Safety sign maker http://www.stclaire.com/safety_sign_builder/ssb-panel.php Safety equipment websites www.seton.net.au http://www.ansellasiapacific.com/home
Safety in the Laboratory Operational aspects: Audits Inspections Staff/students leaving the laboratory HS098Chemical Safety System Checklist HS048aWorkplace OHS Inspection Checklist -Offices, General Labs & Workshops HS704 Laboratory Decommissioning Checklist
Other HS Training HS Awareness online Hazardous Substances Bio - Safety and Infection Control Working Safely with HF (theory!) Radiation Safety Training Gene Technology for Researchers