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    1. Effective Uses of PowerPoint

    2. [Introduction, slide 1] As the University faces budget cuts, instructors have been put in the position of teaching larger and larger classes. Some instructors find themselves teaching in front of large lecture classes for the first time, while others face rising minimum enrollment numbers in their classes. Many departments have been cutting costs by going paperless, forcing instructors to make better use of digital technology. As money gets tighter, tools like PowerPoint, which are already widely used around campus, are likely the become more prominent.[Introduction, slide 1] As the University faces budget cuts, instructors have been put in the position of teaching larger and larger classes. Some instructors find themselves teaching in front of large lecture classes for the first time, while others face rising minimum enrollment numbers in their classes. Many departments have been cutting costs by going paperless, forcing instructors to make better use of digital technology. As money gets tighter, tools like PowerPoint, which are already widely used around campus, are likely the become more prominent.

    3. Poorly designed PowerPoints lead to lower engagement and attendance [Introduction, slide 2] Unfortunately, PowerPoint has the potential to be a crutch for poorly-planned and under-prepared lectures. In most peoples experience, poorly-designed PowerPoints are probably the norm think long lectures in darkened lecture halls, slides packed with bullet points, silly animations, and pointless sound effects. Note-taking becomes mindlessly copying bullet points. Many students stop coming to class after the first week, preferring to read the PowerPoint from home rather than go to class to have it read to them, and who can blame them? Some educators and students react to this situation by blaming PowerPoint, but the truth is that PowerPoint isnt to blame misuse of the program is what causes these problems.[Introduction, slide 2] Unfortunately, PowerPoint has the potential to be a crutch for poorly-planned and under-prepared lectures. In most peoples experience, poorly-designed PowerPoints are probably the norm think long lectures in darkened lecture halls, slides packed with bullet points, silly animations, and pointless sound effects. Note-taking becomes mindlessly copying bullet points. Many students stop coming to class after the first week, preferring to read the PowerPoint from home rather than go to class to have it read to them, and who can blame them? Some educators and students react to this situation by blaming PowerPoint, but the truth is that PowerPoint isnt to blame misuse of the program is what causes these problems.

    4. Promote student learning by making interactive PowerPoints [Introduction, slide 3] Today were going to talk about how PowerPoint can be used as more than just a dumping place for notes. Our training session will focus on ways to use PowerPoint to make classes, both large and small, more interactive, thus increasing student engagement and promoting learning. [You might want to note here that this wont be a how to use PowerPoint training session, though some exercises will be available at the end.][Introduction, slide 3] Today were going to talk about how PowerPoint can be used as more than just a dumping place for notes. Our training session will focus on ways to use PowerPoint to make classes, both large and small, more interactive, thus increasing student engagement and promoting learning. [You might want to note here that this wont be a how to use PowerPoint training session, though some exercises will be available at the end.]

    5. Todays agenda [Introduction, slide 4] By the end of the session today, youll have been exposed to methods for making large lectures more interactive and for using PowerPoint as a tool for students in small classes. Were going to start with a discussion of techniques for making lecture-based, teacher-centered classes more interactive using PowerPoint. After that were going to move on to some ways to use PowerPoint as a tool in discussion-based, student-centered classes. Were going to finish up with some best practices for PowerPoint slide design that will make your presentations more accessible, usable, and effective these best practices apply to all uses of PowerPoint, hence the arrow above.[Introduction, slide 4] By the end of the session today, youll have been exposed to methods for making large lectures more interactive and for using PowerPoint as a tool for students in small classes. Were going to start with a discussion of techniques for making lecture-based, teacher-centered classes more interactive using PowerPoint. After that were going to move on to some ways to use PowerPoint as a tool in discussion-based, student-centered classes. Were going to finish up with some best practices for PowerPoint slide design that will make your presentations more accessible, usable, and effective these best practices apply to all uses of PowerPoint, hence the arrow above.

    6. Reflect on your experiences with PowerPoint as an audience member in a lecture. Think of a positive or a negative experience to share. [transition to Part 1] Lets begin by discussing the use of PowerPoint in large lecture classes. Before I start talking, Im going to ask you to think about your own experiences in the audience of a lecture in which PowerPoint was used. [Ask participants to think about experiences theyve had as audience members in lectures with PowerPoint presentations. Ask them to focus on the use of PowerPoint, not on slide design (which well discuss later). If participants are reluctant to volunteer, have them tell their neighbor about their two examples, then ask pairs to share with the large group.] [If possible, summarize participant responses before moving on and to help transition into this section. For example, It sounds as though most of the negative experiences Im hearing involved long lectures with no audience interaction (etc.)] [transition to Part 1] Lets begin by discussing the use of PowerPoint in large lecture classes. Before I start talking, Im going to ask you to think about your own experiences in the audience of a lecture in which PowerPoint was used. [Ask participants to think about experiences theyve had as audience members in lectures with PowerPoint presentations. Ask them to focus on the use of PowerPoint, not on slide design (which well discuss later). If participants are reluctant to volunteer, have them tell their neighbor about their two examples, then ask pairs to share with the large group.] [If possible, summarize participant responses before moving on and to help transition into this section. For example, It sounds as though most of the negative experiences Im hearing involved long lectures with no audience interaction (etc.)]

    7. Use PowerPoint to integrate active learning strategies into your lecture [Part 1, introductory slide] Lets talk about some ways to make lectures more interactive and engaging by using PowerPoint. This discussion will be divided into four main sections: ideas for before the lecture, ideas for the beginning of the lecture, ideas for the middle of the lecture, and ideas for the end of the lecture.[Part 1, introductory slide] Lets talk about some ways to make lectures more interactive and engaging by using PowerPoint. This discussion will be divided into four main sections: ideas for before the lecture, ideas for the beginning of the lecture, ideas for the middle of the lecture, and ideas for the end of the lecture.

    8. Distribute your slides before your lecture to guide student preparation for class [Part 1, section 1, introductory slide] Before your lecture, consider using ICON to distribute your PowerPoint slides before class. Having lecture notes available will help your students prepare for class by focusing their study and take more thoughtful notes once theyre in class. One concern that many instructors have about distributing their slides is that students may feel like the lecture slides are a replacement for going to class and attendance will start to fall. This is more likely to be a problem if your lecture slides contain all of your lecture notes, which we dont recommend. Your PowerPoint presentations shouldnt have so much information on them that they can replace attendance to the lecture. If possible, create two versions of your PowerPoint: one that youll use in lecture, and one that youll distribute to students before lecture. The distributed slides should be almost exactly the same as your slideshow, with a few differences. [Part 1, section 1, introductory slide] Before your lecture, consider using ICON to distribute your PowerPoint slides before class. Having lecture notes available will help your students prepare for class by focusing their study and take more thoughtful notes once theyre in class. One concern that many instructors have about distributing their slides is that students may feel like the lecture slides are a replacement for going to class and attendance will start to fall. This is more likely to be a problem if your lecture slides contain all of your lecture notes, which we dont recommend. Your PowerPoint presentations shouldnt have so much information on them that they can replace attendance to the lecture. If possible, create two versions of your PowerPoint: one that youll use in lecture, and one that youll distribute to students before lecture. The distributed slides should be almost exactly the same as your slideshow, with a few differences.

    9. Delete some information from the slides you distribute [Part 1, section 1, example 1] For example, you might create a version of your PowerPoint for distribution before your lecture that has some information missing. Instruct students to fill in the missing information on the PowerPoint handout while doing their reading for class. This fulfills the goal of helping students focus their reading in preparation for lecture. For example, you might delete the text from certain bullet points on the distributed version of your presentation, like in the slide on the left of the screen here. Students fill it out before class, then during lecture you can poll the class for the answers they gave before showing the complete PowerPoint slide, which would look like the slide on the right of the screen. [Part 1, section 1, example 1] For example, you might create a version of your PowerPoint for distribution before your lecture that has some information missing. Instruct students to fill in the missing information on the PowerPoint handout while doing their reading for class. This fulfills the goal of helping students focus their reading in preparation for lecture. For example, you might delete the text from certain bullet points on the distributed version of your presentation, like in the slide on the left of the screen here. Students fill it out before class, then during lecture you can poll the class for the answers they gave before showing the complete PowerPoint slide, which would look like the slide on the right of the screen.

    10. Leave room in the distributed version for students to write in during class [Part 1, section 1, example 2] You might also leave a slide on the handout/distribution version of your PowerPoint blank, leaving space for students to answer a question, write a summary of main points, make comparisons, evaluate the concepts being discussed, or apply the concepts being taught. An example is given here, but rather than talk about it, well try it out ourselves.[Part 1, section 1, example 2] You might also leave a slide on the handout/distribution version of your PowerPoint blank, leaving space for students to answer a question, write a summary of main points, make comparisons, evaluate the concepts being discussed, or apply the concepts being taught. An example is given here, but rather than talk about it, well try it out ourselves.

    11. Understanding Check: Distributing Slides [Part 1, section 1, example 3 (cont.)] This is the version of the slide that will go in the participants packets. [delete from slideshow presentation][Part 1, section 1, example 3 (cont.)] This is the version of the slide that will go in the participants packets. [delete from slideshow presentation]

    12. Help students make the mental transition into class at the beginning of your lecture [Part 1, section 2, introductory slide] Now were going to move on to the beginning of your lecture. You want the beginning of your lecture to help students make the mental transition into class time. This means getting them to focus their attention on the topic of the lecture and prompting them to start thinking about what they already know about the topic. [Part 1, section 2, introductory slide] Now were going to move on to the beginning of your lecture. You want the beginning of your lecture to help students make the mental transition into class time. This means getting them to focus their attention on the topic of the lecture and prompting them to start thinking about what they already know about the topic.

    13. Use an attention-grabber to focus student attention [Part 1, section 2, example 1] Consider including an attention-grabber at the beginning of your PowerPoint. Students will come into class thinking about any number of things besides what youre there to talk about assignments theyre working on, friends, plans for the weekend, food, the conversation theyre having with one of their classmates, roommate issues, etc. You need a way of focusing student attention on you. Some instructors do this by projecting an image or video to stimulate discussion, or by playing music at the beginning of class. [Part 1, section 2, example 1] Consider including an attention-grabber at the beginning of your PowerPoint. Students will come into class thinking about any number of things besides what youre there to talk about assignments theyre working on, friends, plans for the weekend, food, the conversation theyre having with one of their classmates, roommate issues, etc. You need a way of focusing student attention on you. Some instructors do this by projecting an image or video to stimulate discussion, or by playing music at the beginning of class.

    14. Set the stage for your lecture [Part 1, section 2, example 2] Orient students by setting the stage for your lecture. Remind them of where they are in the larger scheme of the course, what material youve been covering in recent lectures, and where the current unit of study is going. Tell them what they will learn in the days session by stating your learning objectives and agenda at the beginning of your lecture. If you think of your lecture like telling a story, this would be where you orient your audience by describing the setting.[Part 1, section 2, example 2] Orient students by setting the stage for your lecture. Remind them of where they are in the larger scheme of the course, what material youve been covering in recent lectures, and where the current unit of study is going. Tell them what they will learn in the days session by stating your learning objectives and agenda at the beginning of your lecture. If you think of your lecture like telling a story, this would be where you orient your audience by describing the setting.

    15. Use activities that help students access their prior knowledge [Part 1, section 2, example 3] People learn by connecting new knowledge to existing understandings. You can help students make the mental transition to class with activities that prompt them to access prior knowledge. [click once] For example, take a look at this slide, which asks students to write down what they know about the topic of the days lecture. Another example of this technique is the opening question from the beginning of this presentation, which asked you to reflect on your prior experiences with PowerPoint. [click again] Focused listing is another way to have students access prior knowledge. [Part 1, section 2, example 3] People learn by connecting new knowledge to existing understandings. You can help students make the mental transition to class with activities that prompt them to access prior knowledge. [click once] For example, take a look at this slide, which asks students to write down what they know about the topic of the days lecture. Another example of this technique is the opening question from the beginning of this presentation, which asked you to reflect on your prior experiences with PowerPoint. [click again] Focused listing is another way to have students access prior knowledge.

    16. [pause for questions between Part 1/Section 2 and Part 1/Section 3 Weve just gone over a few ideas for using PowerPoint and active learning techniques before your lecture and at the beginning of your lecture. To recap, before your lecture you can guide student preparation for class by distributing your PowerPoint slides with places for students to take notes before class. At the beginning of your lecture you can help your students make the mental transition to class by using music or other media as an attention getter, setting the stage for your students, and using activities that make students access their prior knowledge. Lets pause here for questions or comments before we move on.[pause for questions between Part 1/Section 2 and Part 1/Section 3 Weve just gone over a few ideas for using PowerPoint and active learning techniques before your lecture and at the beginning of your lecture. To recap, before your lecture you can guide student preparation for class by distributing your PowerPoint slides with places for students to take notes before class. At the beginning of your lecture you can help your students make the mental transition to class by using music or other media as an attention getter, setting the stage for your students, and using activities that make students access their prior knowledge. Lets pause here for questions or comments before we move on.

    17. Use active learning strategies in the body of your lecture [Part 1, section 3, introductory slide] The goal for the middle (the body) of your lecture is to present your content. Try to include active learning strategies at least every 12-15 minutes. 12-15 minutes is about the maximum amount of time most students can/will pay attention. Well discuss some active learning strategies here that will help students stay engaged during your lecture. [Part 1, section 3, introductory slide] The goal for the middle (the body) of your lecture is to present your content. Try to include active learning strategies at least every 12-15 minutes. 12-15 minutes is about the maximum amount of time most students can/will pay attention. Well discuss some active learning strategies here that will help students stay engaged during your lecture.

    18. Promote student participation with think-pair-share [Part 1, section 3, example 1] One example of an active learning strategy is Think-Pair-Share Think-pair-share involves asking students to think about their response to a question, share their answer with a neighbor, and then share their answers with the whole class. This could be in response to a multiple choice question, a short answer question, or a brainstorm. This is a good strategy for getting a quiet class talking. Students that wouldnt feel comfortable volunteering in front of a lecture hall full of peers will speak comfortably to a partner. Once students have had a chance to speak, more people will be willing to volunteer. [Part 1, section 3, example 1] One example of an active learning strategy is Think-Pair-Share Think-pair-share involves asking students to think about their response to a question, share their answer with a neighbor, and then share their answers with the whole class. This could be in response to a multiple choice question, a short answer question, or a brainstorm. This is a good strategy for getting a quiet class talking. Students that wouldnt feel comfortable volunteering in front of a lecture hall full of peers will speak comfortably to a partner. Once students have had a chance to speak, more people will be willing to volunteer.

    19. Provide opportunities for self-assessment with 2-minute papers [Part 1, section 3, example 2] Another possibility is the two-minute paper. Ask students to write a two-minute response to a question or a prompt. This is especially effective with questions that require higher-order thinking skills; for example, ask students to evaluate an argument or apply a concept. These papers can be turned in to their T.A.s, or students can hang on to them. These responses should be used to make students think actively during lecture; they shouldnt be formally graded (although some instructors use these informal writing assignments to record attendance). If students keep their responses, they can use them for informal self-assessment. [Part 1, section 3, example 2] Another possibility is the two-minute paper. Ask students to write a two-minute response to a question or a prompt. This is especially effective with questions that require higher-order thinking skills; for example, ask students to evaluate an argument or apply a concept. These papers can be turned in to their T.A.s, or students can hang on to them. These responses should be used to make students think actively during lecture; they shouldnt be formally graded (although some instructors use these informal writing assignments to record attendance). If students keep their responses, they can use them for informal self-assessment.

    20. Refresh students and give them a chance to catch up with a note check [Part 1, section 3, example 3] You can also pause for a 1-2 minute note check. Have students compare their notes with a partner they can use this time to fill in information they missed, check on key points, and ask each other questions to clarify confusing concepts. [Part 1, section 3, example 3] You can also pause for a 1-2 minute note check. Have students compare their notes with a partner they can use this time to fill in information they missed, check on key points, and ask each other questions to clarify confusing concepts.

    21. Check for understanding with student response systems [Part 1, section 3, example 4] Consider using SRS. Describe what SRS are. Use to check for understanding. After explaining a concept, ask a multiple choice question and have students use their clickers to respond. If the majority of answers are correct, you know that most of the class understands the topic and you can move on. If the answers are split, you know that there are still misunderstandings. In this case, you can have students explain their reasoning to their neighbors, then answer the question again. [The image in this slide links to a YouTube clip of one of Erik Mazurs classes using clickers. The relevant portion of the video starts at 1:01.] [Part 1, section 3, example 4] Consider using SRS. Describe what SRS are. Use to check for understanding. After explaining a concept, ask a multiple choice question and have students use their clickers to respond. If the majority of answers are correct, you know that most of the class understands the topic and you can move on. If the answers are split, you know that there are still misunderstandings. In this case, you can have students explain their reasoning to their neighbors, then answer the question again. [The image in this slide links to a YouTube clip of one of Erik Mazurs classes using clickers. The relevant portion of the video starts at 1:01.]

    22. Leave reminders to yourself to pause for questions [Part 1, section 3, example 5] Leave slides that say only Questions? on them to remind you to pause and ask for questions. Otherwise, if youre pausing for questions, hit the B key to give your students a rest from your PowerPoint. [Part 1, section 3, example 5] Leave slides that say only Questions? on them to remind you to pause and ask for questions. Otherwise, if youre pausing for questions, hit the B key to give your students a rest from your PowerPoint.

    23. Create a sense of closure at the end of your lecture [Part 1, section 4, introductory slide] The goals of the end of your lecture are: To summarize the concepts you covered To give a sense of closure To give students a chance to rethink the information they learned and apply it to their lives [Part 1, section 4, introductory slide] The goals of the end of your lecture are: To summarize the concepts you covered To give a sense of closure To give students a chance to rethink the information they learned and apply it to their lives

    24. Have students summarize the lectures main points with a two-minute paper [Part 1, section 4, example 1] In the last few minutes of class, consider having students summarize the most important points of the lecture in a two-minute paper. Again, you can choose to collect the papers and use them to assess student understanding or keep attendance. Otherwise, allow students to keep what they write as a study tool or a self-assessment tool. [Part 1, section 4, example 1] In the last few minutes of class, consider having students summarize the most important points of the lecture in a two-minute paper. Again, you can choose to collect the papers and use them to assess student understanding or keep attendance. Otherwise, allow students to keep what they write as a study tool or a self-assessment tool.

    25. Collect feedback from students by asking them the muddiest point [Part 1, section 4, example 2] Have students write down what the muddiest point (the point that they had the most trouble understanding or that they need clarified). Students could write them on index cards and turn them in to you or a T.A., or you could have them respond in a survey on ICON by the next morning. [Part 1, section 4, example 2] Have students write down what the muddiest point (the point that they had the most trouble understanding or that they need clarified). Students could write them on index cards and turn them in to you or a T.A., or you could have them respond in a survey on ICON by the next morning.

    26. Begin preparation for your next lecture with a final informal assessment [Part 1, section 4, example 3] Ask a final assessment question (multiple choice, true/false) to check for understanding to help you prepare for the next lecture. Have students respond to the question using clickers or by raising their hands; if student responses are largely split on the answer to your question, you may need to reteach the concept you were asking about. [Part 1, section 4, example 3] Ask a final assessment question (multiple choice, true/false) to check for understanding to help you prepare for the next lecture. Have students respond to the question using clickers or by raising their hands; if student responses are largely split on the answer to your question, you may need to reteach the concept you were asking about.

    27. Which of these strategies would you try in your own classes? [transition between Part 1 and Part 2] Lets recap. Weve talked about ways to use PowerPoint before and at the beginning of your lecture. Then we talked about some active learning strategies you could use in the body of your lecture to promote student engagement in class; these included think-pair-share, 2-minute papers, note checks, clickers, and frequent pauses for questions. We finished up our section on effective uses of PowerPoint in lectures with a discussion of three ways to finish up your lectures: by asking students to summarize the main points, having them describe the muddiest point, and by asking a final assessment question. Take a minute to think about which of these strategies you might use in your classes before we move on to the next section.[transition between Part 1 and Part 2] Lets recap. Weve talked about ways to use PowerPoint before and at the beginning of your lecture. Then we talked about some active learning strategies you could use in the body of your lecture to promote student engagement in class; these included think-pair-share, 2-minute papers, note checks, clickers, and frequent pauses for questions. We finished up our section on effective uses of PowerPoint in lectures with a discussion of three ways to finish up your lectures: by asking students to summarize the main points, having them describe the muddiest point, and by asking a final assessment question. Take a minute to think about which of these strategies you might use in your classes before we move on to the next section.

    28. Use PowerPoint as a resource for students in smaller classes [Part 2, introductory slide] Were going to move on now to the second part of the training session: using PowerPoint in small, student-centered classes. PPT is generally used to support a lecture, because it places control in the hands of the teacher. Smaller classes often have more opportunities for student-led discussions rather than being lecture-based. These are some ideas for using PPT in discussion-based, student-centered classrooms. These arent necessarily things that couldnt be done in large lecture classes. Rather, these are ideas for uses of PowerPoint beyond its function as a support for lectures/presentations.[Part 2, introductory slide] Were going to move on now to the second part of the training session: using PowerPoint in small, student-centered classes. PPT is generally used to support a lecture, because it places control in the hands of the teacher. Smaller classes often have more opportunities for student-led discussions rather than being lecture-based. These are some ideas for using PPT in discussion-based, student-centered classrooms. These arent necessarily things that couldnt be done in large lecture classes. Rather, these are ideas for uses of PowerPoint beyond its function as a support for lectures/presentations.

    29. Use images to review concepts and stimulate discussion [Part 2, section 1, example 1] For example, you could display an image and tell students to discuss what it is and why its relevant. This is somewhat like using PowerPoint as a digital slide projector. [click once] For example, in a foreign language class, you could: Choose an image that contains the vocabulary being learned in that lesson, students practice vocabulary by describing the image. Choose an image that seems to tell a story; ask students to make up a story leading up to the point captured in the image. The image in this slide would be an example of this use. [click again] In a history class: Show an image of an artifact, prompt students to explain it and its significance. The second image on this slide shows some examples of Hornbooks from the late 1800s. Show maps, annotate with arrows/circles to draw attention to important parts. [Part 2, section 1, example 1] For example, you could display an image and tell students to discuss what it is and why its relevant. This is somewhat like using PowerPoint as a digital slide projector. [click once] For example, in a foreign language class, you could: Choose an image that contains the vocabulary being learned in that lesson, students practice vocabulary by describing the image. Choose an image that seems to tell a story; ask students to make up a story leading up to the point captured in the image. The image in this slide would be an example of this use. [click again] In a history class: Show an image of an artifact, prompt students to explain it and its significance. The second image on this slide shows some examples of Hornbooks from the late 1800s. Show maps, annotate with arrows/circles to draw attention to important parts.

    30. Project reference information for student discussions [Part 2, section 1, example 2] You could also make a list of vocabulary words/dates/names for students to refer to during discussion. This example also comes from a foreign language class. The instructor realized that his students always needed to pause in their discussion to recall dates and names; he decided to display that information in a PowerPoint so students could focus on more important aspects of the discussion. [Part 2, section 1, example 2] You could also make a list of vocabulary words/dates/names for students to refer to during discussion. This example also comes from a foreign language class. The instructor realized that his students always needed to pause in their discussion to recall dates and names; he decided to display that information in a PowerPoint so students could focus on more important aspects of the discussion.

    31. Project scanned pieces of text [Part 2, section 1, example 3] Project scanned pieces of text to Analyze and discuss the formatting of text View original pieces of text (rather than visiting the rare books collection) Direct class attention to a shared source (rather than each student looking down at their individual books)[Part 2, section 1, example 3] Project scanned pieces of text to Analyze and discuss the formatting of text View original pieces of text (rather than visiting the rare books collection) Direct class attention to a shared source (rather than each student looking down at their individual books)

    32. Use PowerPoint to improve student presentations. [Part 2, section 2, introductory slide] PowerPoint is usually the bane of student presentations, but it doesnt have to be. Make students try a new presentation style by imposing limits. For example, in pecha-kucha [peh CHA kucha], presenters are required to use only 20 slides; each slide can be displayed for exactly 20 seconds. Students will need to streamline their presentation to fit within these guidelines. Or, compile slides from different PowerPoint presentations you find online, and have students stand up to give the presentation. The presenter has to think on his feet to find connections between the slides chosen. This is usually pretty funny, and helps create a sense of classroom community. [Part 2, section 2, introductory slide] PowerPoint is usually the bane of student presentations, but it doesnt have to be. Make students try a new presentation style by imposing limits. For example, in pecha-kucha [peh CHA kucha], presenters are required to use only 20 slides; each slide can be displayed for exactly 20 seconds. Students will need to streamline their presentation to fit within these guidelines. Or, compile slides from different PowerPoint presentations you find online, and have students stand up to give the presentation. The presenter has to think on his feet to find connections between the slides chosen. This is usually pretty funny, and helps create a sense of classroom community.

    33. [transition between Part 2 and Part 3] Weve just covered some ideas for using PowerPoint in smaller classes. To recap, we talked about using PowerPoint to display images to stimulate discussion, project information for students to reference, and display scanned texts. We also talked about using PowerPoint to enliven student presentations. Take a minute now to think about how you might use some of these strategies in your classes. [If time permits, ask participants to share how they might use these in their classes you might get some new ideas!][transition between Part 2 and Part 3] Weve just covered some ideas for using PowerPoint in smaller classes. To recap, we talked about using PowerPoint to display images to stimulate discussion, project information for students to reference, and display scanned texts. We also talked about using PowerPoint to enliven student presentations. Take a minute now to think about how you might use some of these strategies in your classes. [If time permits, ask participants to share how they might use these in their classes you might get some new ideas!]

    34. Apply design rules to make slides effective, accessible, & usable [Part 3, introductory slide] The final portion of this training session will focus on best practices related to PowerPoint slide design. This portion will be divided into three sections: best practices for making your slides more effective and impactful, best practices for ensuring that your slides are clear and readable for your students, and best practices for making a slideshow that can be reliably transferred from one computer to another. [Part 3, introductory slide] The final portion of this training session will focus on best practices related to PowerPoint slide design. This portion will be divided into three sections: best practices for making your slides more effective and impactful, best practices for ensuring that your slides are clear and readable for your students, and best practices for making a slideshow that can be reliably transferred from one computer to another.

    35. Give your slides more impact with fewer bells and whistles [Part 3, section 1, introductory slide] In PowerPoint slide design, less is more. Your slides will have more impact and be more readable if theyre simple. Remember, your PowerPoint is there to support you, not to replace you or distract from you. Here are some tips for keeping your slides simple.[Part 3, section 1, introductory slide] In PowerPoint slide design, less is more. Your slides will have more impact and be more readable if theyre simple. Remember, your PowerPoint is there to support you, not to replace you or distract from you. Here are some tips for keeping your slides simple.

    36. Limit the amount of text you have on each slide [Part 3, section 1, example 1] For example, its a good idea to limit the amount of text you include on each of your slides. Too much text competes with the speaker: Students cant effectively read & listen at the same time they do worse at both Students will copy it down verbatim without reading it Students may see lecture slides as replacement for lecture Keep it simple to keep you on track, highlight key points (not to help you avoid preparing for your lecture). Some people use the 6x6 rule: 6 lines per slide, 6 words per line. Rules like this range from as low as 4x4 up to 8x8 the take-home idea is to limit the amount of text you have on each slide. Others suggest that using complete sentences on your slides aids comprehension (this is what weve tried to do in this presentation). [Click] Heres an example of a slide with better design. [Part 3, section 1, example 1] For example, its a good idea to limit the amount of text you include on each of your slides. Too much text competes with the speaker: Students cant effectively read & listen at the same time they do worse at both Students will copy it down verbatim without reading it Students may see lecture slides as replacement for lecture Keep it simple to keep you on track, highlight key points (not to help you avoid preparing for your lecture). Some people use the 6x6 rule: 6 lines per slide, 6 words per line. Rules like this range from as low as 4x4 up to 8x8 the take-home idea is to limit the amount of text you have on each slide. Others suggest that using complete sentences on your slides aids comprehension (this is what weve tried to do in this presentation). [Click] Heres an example of a slide with better design.

    37. Minimize bolding and italics [Part 3, section 1, example 2] Minimize bolding and italics. If you need to bold or italicize a lot of words on your screen, you probably have too much text. When you emphasize too much, you end up deemphasizing everything. (Story Pam) [Part 3, section 1, example 2] Minimize bolding and italics. If you need to bold or italicize a lot of words on your screen, you probably have too much text. When you emphasize too much, you end up deemphasizing everything. (Story Pam)

    38. Use well-chosen images [Part 3, section 1, example 3] Use images wisely. Dont use so many that they distract from your text or from you; slides that have multiple images and too much text contain too much information for students to effectively process. Used wisely, images can be memorable and striking. Humans have a strong memory for images, so they can act as memory hooks for important information. Unlike text, images reinforce your words without distracting from them. Compare this slide to the next one.[Part 3, section 1, example 3] Use images wisely. Dont use so many that they distract from your text or from you; slides that have multiple images and too much text contain too much information for students to effectively process. Used wisely, images can be memorable and striking. Humans have a strong memory for images, so they can act as memory hooks for important information. Unlike text, images reinforce your words without distracting from them. Compare this slide to the next one.

    39. Use well-chosen images Choose images that are: Memorable Interesting Attractive [Part 3, section 1, example 3 (cont.)] Heres an example of poor image use. The images are crowded and compete for your attention. Theyre awkwardly placed and encroach on the text to the left. Its much more effective to choose a single image and stick with it rather than distract your audience with a collage like this.[Part 3, section 1, example 3 (cont.)] Heres an example of poor image use. The images are crowded and compete for your attention. Theyre awkwardly placed and encroach on the text to the left. Its much more effective to choose a single image and stick with it rather than distract your audience with a collage like this.

    40. Use animations, transitions, and sounds sparingly [Part 3, section 1, example 4] Animations, sounds, and fancy transitions are potentially distracting and may seem unprofessional. Fade can be used to limit amount of text on screen, but you might end up behind your podium the whole time Fade to black transition is an effective way to separate sections of your lecture Ive never seen an effective use of sound effects [Part 3, section 1, example 4] Animations, sounds, and fancy transitions are potentially distracting and may seem unprofessional. Fade can be used to limit amount of text on screen, but you might end up behind your podium the whole time Fade to black transition is an effective way to separate sections of your lecture Ive never seen an effective use of sound effects

    41. Ensure accessibility by choosing colors and fonts wisely [Part 3, section 2, introductory slide] Make sure that your PowerPoint slides are clear and readable for members of your audience. This means choosing fonts that are clear and easy to read and making sure your text is large enough for students in the back of the class to read without straining. [Part 3, section 2, introductory slide] Make sure that your PowerPoint slides are clear and readable for members of your audience. This means choosing fonts that are clear and easy to read and making sure your text is large enough for students in the back of the class to read without straining.

    42. [Part 3, section 2, example 1] We usually recommend that you keep your font size at least above 24. In this example, the word create is size 30, problems is 24, and for is 18. Font size tends to be a problem when youre using lots of bullet points; PowerPoint automatically formats nested bullet points so the text in the nested bullets is a smaller size.[Part 3, section 2, example 1] We usually recommend that you keep your font size at least above 24. In this example, the word create is size 30, problems is 24, and for is 18. Font size tends to be a problem when youre using lots of bullet points; PowerPoint automatically formats nested bullet points so the text in the nested bullets is a smaller size.

    43. Ensure accessibility by choosing colors and fonts wisely [Part 3, section 2, example 2] Make sure colors contrast with the background remember that it will look different on the projector. Heres an example of bad contrast. Backgrounds with both dark and light shades are often problematic. If you use PowerPoint to create charts and graphs, make sure the colors you use are different enough from each other. If youre using one of PowerPoints preset design templates, the charts and graphs created often use varying shades of the same color, which are hard to differentiate when projected. [Part 3, section 2, example 2] Make sure colors contrast with the background remember that it will look different on the projector. Heres an example of bad contrast. Backgrounds with both dark and light shades are often problematic. If you use PowerPoint to create charts and graphs, make sure the colors you use are different enough from each other. If youre using one of PowerPoints preset design templates, the charts and graphs created often use varying shades of the same color, which are hard to differentiate when projected.

    44. Avoid frustration by creating presentations that are usable on all computers [Part 3, section 3, introductory slide] Follow a few basic best practices to ensure that your PowerPoint will work on the computer in your classroom as well as your office computer and your students computers.[Part 3, section 3, introductory slide] Follow a few basic best practices to ensure that your PowerPoint will work on the computer in your classroom as well as your office computer and your students computers.

    45. Use default fonts [Part 3, section 3, example 1] Use common default fonts that come on your computer; dont use fancy fonts that youve downloaded from the Internet. Compare the two examples above. The example to the left is a slide made with a non-default font; the example to the right is what that slide would look like on a classroom computer on which that font wasnt available. The computer has replaced the unknown font with another one; now the text slides off the side and bottom of the slide, making it unreadable and ugly.[Part 3, section 3, example 1] Use common default fonts that come on your computer; dont use fancy fonts that youve downloaded from the Internet. Compare the two examples above. The example to the left is a slide made with a non-default font; the example to the right is what that slide would look like on a classroom computer on which that font wasnt available. The computer has replaced the unknown font with another one; now the text slides off the side and bottom of the slide, making it unreadable and ugly.

    46. Insert pictures properly [Part 3, section 3, example 2] Dont copy and paste pictures into your PowerPoint; its unreliable and when you move the PowerPoint file from one computer to another, the images may not come along with the slideshow. Instead, youll get a white box that looks like the image on the slide. Instead, use the Insert Picture tool. Instructions for inserting an image properly are in your packet. Heres a screenshot of the tool itself in PowerPoint 2007.[Part 3, section 3, example 2] Dont copy and paste pictures into your PowerPoint; its unreliable and when you move the PowerPoint file from one computer to another, the images may not come along with the slideshow. Instead, youll get a white box that looks like the image on the slide. Instead, use the Insert Picture tool. Instructions for inserting an image properly are in your packet. Heres a screenshot of the tool itself in PowerPoint 2007.

    47. Compress images [Part 3, section 3, example 3] Compress your images so that your PowerPoint files arent huge. This is especially important if youre planning on distributing your PowerPoint slides to your student electronically. Instructions for doing this are in the exercises in your packet. [Part 3, section 3, example 3] Compress your images so that your PowerPoint files arent huge. This is especially important if youre planning on distributing your PowerPoint slides to your student electronically. Instructions for doing this are in the exercises in your packet.

    48. Recap [Conclusion] To recap, we started with a discussion of techniques for making lecture-based, teacher-centered classes more interactive using PowerPoint before your lecture and at the beginning, middle, and end of your lecture. After that we moved on to some ways to use PowerPoint as a tool in discussion-based, student-centered classes; we talked about ways to use PowerPoint as a tool for students to use in discussions and ways to use PowerPoint to improve student presentations. Were finished up with some best practices for PowerPoint slide design that will make your presentations more accessible, usable, and effective.[Conclusion] To recap, we started with a discussion of techniques for making lecture-based, teacher-centered classes more interactive using PowerPoint before your lecture and at the beginning, middle, and end of your lecture. After that we moved on to some ways to use PowerPoint as a tool in discussion-based, student-centered classes; we talked about ways to use PowerPoint as a tool for students to use in discussions and ways to use PowerPoint to improve student presentations. Were finished up with some best practices for PowerPoint slide design that will make your presentations more accessible, usable, and effective.

    49. Atkinson, Cliff. (2008). Beyond bullet points: Using Microsoft Office 2007 to create presentations that inform, motivate, and inspire. Microsoft Press. University of Minnesota Center for Teaching and Learning. (2008). Active learning with PowerPoint. Retrieved from http://www1.umn.edu/ohr/teachlearn/tutorials/powerpoint/. Kapterev, Alexei. (n. d.). Death by PowerPoint (and how to fight it). Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/thecroaker/death-by-powerpoint.