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Chapter 11. Menu Planning - Horizontal and Vertical Pairing Decisions. Aperitif: Food and Wine of the Pacific Northwest General Menu Planning Suggestions Basic Wine Sequencing Recommendations. PNW Menu Item Discussion and Recipes Wine and Food Pairing Instrument

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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Menu Planning - Horizontal and Vertical Pairing Decisions


Chapter 11 outline

Aperitif: Food and Wine of the Pacific Northwest

General Menu Planning Suggestions

Basic Wine Sequencing Recommendations

PNW Menu Item Discussion and Recipes

Wine and Food Pairing Instrument

Wine and Food Match Decision Tree

A Profiling Approach to Match Level Assessment

Chapter 11 Outline


Chapter 11 key concepts
Chapter 11 Key Concepts

  • Horizontal or vertical pairing choices

  • Integrating indigenous ingredients, ethnic cooking styles, and regional wines into a menu theme

  • Using judgment to predict level of perceived food and wine match

  • The 12 primary pairing decision rules and integrating them into your pairing decisions


Summary of the 12 basic pairing decisions 1 6
Summary of the 12 Basic Pairing Decisions (#1-#6)

  • Rule #1: Food sweetness level should be less than or equal to wine sweetness level.

  • Rule #2: Food acidity level should be less than or equal to wine acidity level.

  • Rule #3: Highly salty foods work better with wines that have high effervescence.

  • Rule #4: The negative impact of bitter food is lessened when combined with wines of moderate to high levels of effervescence.

  • Rule #5: Wine tannin levels should be equal to food fattiness levels.

  • Rule #6: Wine acidity levels should be equal to vegetable food fattiness levels.


Summary of the 12 basic pairing decisions 7 12
Summary of the 12 Basic Pairing Decisions (#7-#12)

  • Rule #7: Overall body of wine should be equal to overall body of food.

  • Rule #8: Food spiciness should be equal to wine spiciness.

  • Rule #9: Spicy food should be paired with off-dry, acidic white wines.

  • Rule #10: Food and wine flavor types can be matched using either a similarity or contrasting approach.

  • Rule #11: Flavor intensity of wine and food should be equal to ensure an equal impact by each gastronomic partner.

  • Rule #12: Flavor persistency of wine and food should be equal to ensure an equal impact by each gastronomic partner.


Pacific northwest cuisine
Pacific Northwest Cuisine

  • Ingredients in search of a cuisine?

  • Local chefs search out:

    • History

    • Cultural influences

    • Ethnic influences

    • Indigenous ingredients


Influences of washington
Influences of Washington

  • The western side is known for its abundant fish & seafood products: salmon, halibut, lingcod, mussels, razor & geoduck clams, Olympia oysters, and Dungeness crab.

  • Japanese, Vietnamese, Chinese, and Thai cultures have influenced the western side.

  • Mexican immigrants/workers and early German settlers have influenced the central and eastern areas.

  • The central and eastern part is primarily an agricultural growing region.

  • Protein in the central and eastern part comes from cattle ranches and feedlots, fish, and game.


Influences of oregon
Influences of Oregon

  • The coastal side has an abundance of fish and seafood similar to Washington.

  • Oregon produces amazing scallops, Dungeness crab, Coho, and King salmon.

  • Oregon produces high quality berries, wild mushrooms, cheddar cheese, melons, and Pinot Noir grapes.

  • There is an abundance of smoked salmon and trout available in restaurants and shops.

  • The Native American smoking technique “hot smoke” has influenced Oregon dishes.


Influences of idaho
Influences of Idaho

  • Idaho is famous for its potatoes.

  • After the Civil War, Idaho was settled by many disenfranchised southerners who brought many techniques used in “pioneer fare”.

  • There is a large Chinese population as a result from those who came to mine and build the railroads and ended up settling down.

  • Idaho has the largest concentration of Basque population in the USA.

  • It is a large producer of farmed Rainbow trout, tilapia, lamb, and a variety of fruits and vegetables.

  • The Palouse Hills is home to the most productive wheat and lentil farms in the country.


Influences of british columbia
Influences of British Columbia

  • It has a variety of ethnic influences on its cuisine.

  • Salmon was incredibly important to the First Nations people and other early settlers.

  • Salmon remains central to their cooking today.

  • Prawns, scallops, clams, Dungeness crab, rockfish, halibut, and black cod are prominent in the cuisine.

  • Bentwood box cookery has influenced British Columbian dishes.

  • Since the 1970’s, B.C. has been influenced by a blend of Asian, European, Indian, and Native flavors combined with BC ingredients.


Wine in the pacific northwest
Wine in the Pacific Northwest

  • Washington: Gewürztraminer, Riesling, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, Lemberger, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, and Merlot.

  • Oregon: Pinot Noir, Gewürztraminer, Riesling, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Gris, Merlot, Zinfandel, and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  • Idaho: Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon.

  • Okanagan Valley, BC: Riesling, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Noir, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon.


Issues that should be considered before planning any menu
Issues That Should Be Considered Before Planning Any Menu

  • Audience

  • Purpose

  • Theme

  • Equipment, staff, and location constraints

  • Number of guests/price and cost issues

  • Special diet needs (ex. allergies, religious restrictions…)

  • Ebb and flow of menu


The five basic rules for wine sequencing decisions
The Five Basic Rules for Wine Sequencing Decisions

  • Light-bodied wine, before medium-bodied wine, before full-bodied wine.

  • Dry wines before sweet wines.

  • Lower alcohol wines before higher alcohol wines.

  • Lower quality wines before higher quality wines.

  • Low-tannin wines before high-tannin wines.

    These suggestions are not always possible. Time periods between courses will assist in diminishing possible carryover issues.


Wine and food pairing decision tree

Components

Texture

Flavors

Sweetness Match

Fattiness/Tannin Match or Fattiness/Wine Acid Match

Spiciness Match or Food Spicy/Wine Sweetness Match

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Overall Body

Acidity Match

Yes

No

Yes

No

Intensity Match

Salty Foods?

No

Yes

No

Yes

Persistency Match

Bitter Foods?

No

Yes

Yes

No

Flavor Type Match

Moderate to High Effervescence?

No

Yes

No

Yes

No Match

Refreshment

Neutral

Good Match

Synergistic Match

Wine and Food Pairing Decision Tree

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Chapter 11 lagniappe something extra

Chapter 11Lagniappe“Something extra”

Assessing Level of Match from Sequential Tasting:

Using the Decision Tree and Wine and Food Evaluation Profiles


Wine and food profiles
Wine and Food Profiles

  • Each section of the decision tree points to key relationships that impact wine and food match.

  • These are determined based on profiles provided in Figure 11.2.

  • Match relationships are weighted and a predicted level match is created using Figure 11.4: Quantifying Wine and Food Profiles to Predict Match Level


Wine and food example
Wine and Food Example

  • A classic food and wine match is used to demonstrate the use of the Wine and Food Decision Tree, Figure 11.2 and 11.4:

    • A high level of perceived match: Grilled lamb chop & braised lamb shoulder with Bordeaux Rouge (9 of 10 points)

    • A low level of perceived match will be presented at in Chapter 12: Grilled Brie with Cabernet Sauvignon (3.5 of 10 points)


Lamb two ways and bordeaux rouge
Lamb two ways and Bordeaux Rouge

  • The lamb dish included a grilled lamb chop & braised lamb shoulder meat.

  • Served with golden whipped potatoes and forest mushrooms.

  • The wine served was 2001 Baron Philippe Rothschild, St. Émilion, Bordeaux Rouge

  • Lamb and red Bordeaux is a classic marriage.


Lamb two ways and bordeaux rouge 2
Lamb two ways and Bordeaux Rouge (2)

  • In many parts of Bordeaux, sheep gaze in off the grasses in the vineyards.

  • This red Bordeaux is from the Saint-Émilion appellation.

  • St-Emilion is located on the cooler ‘Right Bank’ of the Garonne River.

  • All Bordeaux reds use a blending model.

  • Right Bank producers use predominately Merlot rather than a predominately Cabernet Sauvignon blend from the Left Bank vineyards.


Decision tree stage 1

Components

Texture

Flavors

Sweetness Match

Fattiness/Tannin Match or Fattiness/Wine Acid Match

Spiciness Match or Food Spicy/Wine Sweetness Match

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Overall Body

Acidity Match

Yes

No

Yes

No

Intensity Match

Salty Foods?

No

Yes

No

Yes

Persistency Match

Bitter Foods?

No

Yes

Yes

No

Flavor Type Match

Moderate to High Effervescence?

No

Yes

No

Yes

No Match

Refreshment

Neutral

Good Match

Synergistic Match

Decision Tree: Stage 1

Step 1 is to look at the critical match of wine and food components.

This assessment is critical in determining moving from no match to higher levels.

To determine this, it is essential to look at levels of sweetness and acidity as well as if the food is overly salty or bitter.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Figure 11 2c components wine bordeaux rouge food lamb two ways
Figure 11.2C: ComponentsWine: Bordeaux Rouge Food: Lamb two ways

0

5

10

C

O

M

P

O

N

E

N

T

S

F

O

O

D

1

Sweetness

Acidity

Saltiness

Bitterness

Basic components profile

W

I

N

E

1

Dry to Sweet

Acidity

Effervescence


Figure 11 2c components wine bordeaux rouge food lamb two ways1
Figure 11.2C: ComponentsWine: Bordeaux Rouge Food: Lamb two ways

0

5

10

C

O

M

P

O

N

E

N

T

S

F

O

O

D

1

Sweetness

Acidity

Sweetness match

Saltiness

Bitterness

W

I

N

E

1

Dry to Sweet

Acidity

Effervescence


Figure 11 2c components wine bordeaux rouge food lamb two ways2
Figure 11.2C: ComponentsWine: Bordeaux Rouge Food: Lamb two ways

0

5

10

C

O

M

P

O

N

E

N

T

S

F

O

O

D

1

Sweetness

Acidity

Refreshing acidity match

Saltiness

Bitterness

W

I

N

E

1

Dry to Sweet

Acidity

Effervescence


Figure 11 2c components wine bordeaux rouge food lamb two ways3
Figure 11.2C: ComponentsWine: Bordeaux Rouge Food: Lamb two ways

0

5

10

C

O

M

P

O

N

E

N

T

S

F

O

O

D

1

Sweetness

Acidity

Saltiness

Bitterness

No excessive salt or bitterness

W

I

N

E

1

Dry to Sweet

Acidity

Effervescence


Figure 11 2c components wine bordeaux rouge food lamb two ways4
Figure 11.2C: ComponentsWine: Bordeaux Rouge Food: Lamb two ways

0

5

10

C

O

M

P

O

N

E

N

T

S

F

O

O

D

1

Sweetness

Acidity

Saltiness

Lightly to moderately salty foods can enhance the taste of red wines

Bitterness

No excessive salt or bitterness

W

I

N

E

1

Dry to Sweet

Acidity

Effervescence


Top section of figure 11 4 components impact on predicted match
Top Section of Figure 11.4: Components Impact on Predicted Match

ComponentsSimilarity Contrast Score

Sweetness Match __X__ ______ __1__

(Food Sweetness < or = Wine Sweetness Yes=1, No=0)

Acidity Match __ X__ ______ __1__

(Food Acid < or = Wine Acidity Yes=1, No=0)

Low to Moderate Levels of Food Saltiness _ .5 _

(Yes=.5, No=0)

Low to Moderate Levels of Food Bitterness _ .5 _

(Yes=.5, No=0)

Moderate-High Food Saltiness or Bitterness and Wine Effervescence Level Match

(Yes=1, No=0) _____

High Levels of Food Salt or Bitterness (Yes=No Match) No Match

Components Subtotal ___ 2 ___


Top section of figure 11 4 components impact on predicted match1
Top Section of Figure 11.4: Components Impact on Predicted Match

ComponentsSimilarity Contrast Score

Sweetness Match __X__ ______ __1__

(Food Sweetness < or = Wine Sweetness Yes=1, No=0)

Acidity Match __ X__ ______ __1__

(Food Acid < or = Wine Acidity Yes=1, No=0)

Low to Moderate Levels of Food Saltiness _ .5 _

(Yes=.5, No=0)

Low to Moderate Levels of Food Bitterness _ .5 _

(Yes=.5, No=0)

Moderate-High Food Saltiness or Bitterness and Wine Effervescence Level Match

(Yes=1, No=0) _____

High Levels of Food Salt or Bitterness (Yes=No Match) No Match

Components Subtotal ___ 2 ___

Lamb and Bordeaux components match in all areas: sweetness, acidity, bitterness and saltiness.

No need for palate cleansing bubbles to counteract for high food saltiness or bitterness.


Decision tree stage 2

Components Match

Texture

Flavors

Sweetness Match

Fattiness/Tannin Match or Fattiness/Wine Acid Match

Spiciness Match or Food Spicy/Wine Sweetness Match

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Overall Body

Acidity Match

Yes

No

Yes

No

Intensity Match

Salty Foods?

No

Yes

No

Yes

Persistency Match

Bitter Foods?

No

Yes

Yes

No

Flavor Type Match

Moderate to High Effervescence?

No

Yes

No

Yes

No Match

Refreshment

Neutral

Good Match

Synergistic Match

Decision Tree: Stage 2

Step 2 is to look at texture match.

Pertains to food fattiness/wine tannin and overall perceived body in wine and food.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Figure 11 2c texture wine bordeaux rouge food lamb two ways
Figure 11.2C: Texture Match Wine: Bordeaux Rouge Food: Lamb two ways

0

5

10

T

E

X

T

U

R

E

F

2

Fattiness

Overall Body

Basic texture profile

W

I

N

E

2

Tannin

Alcohol

Overall Body


Figure 11 2c texture wine bordeaux rouge food lamb two ways1
Figure 11.2C: Texture Match Wine: Bordeaux Rouge Food: Lamb two ways

0

5

10

T

E

X

T

U

R

E

F

2

Fattiness

Overall Body

Lamb fattiness level and wine tannins are a good match

W

I

N

E

2

Tannin

Alcohol

Overall Body


Figure 11 2c texture wine bordeaux rouge food lamb two ways2
Figure 11.2C: Texture Match Wine: Bordeaux Rouge Food: Lamb two ways

Lamb and Bordeaux -Overall Body match moves the marriage to a least a neutral match level

0

5

10

T

E

X

T

U

R

E

F

2

Fattiness

Overall Body

W

I

N

E

2

Tannin

Alcohol

Overall Body


Middle section of figure 11 4 texture impact on predicted match
Middle Section of Figure 11.4: Texture Impact on Predicted Match

Texture Similarity Contrast Score

Food Fattiness and Wine Tannin Match _ 1 _

(Food Fattiness = Wine Tannin Yes=1, No=0)

Food Fattiness (Vegetable Fat) and Wine Acidity Match _ 0 _

(Food Fattiness = Wine Acid Yes=1, No=0)

Food and Wine Body Match __X__ ______ _ 1 _

(Food Overall Body = Wine Overall Body Yes=1, No=0)

Texture Subtotal ___ 2 ___


Middle section of figure 11 4 texture impact on predicted match1
Middle Section of Figure 11.4: Texture Impact on Predicted Match

Texture Similarity Contrast Score

Food Fattiness and Wine Tannin Match _ 1 _

(Food Fattiness = Wine Tannin Yes=1, No=0)

Food Fattiness (Vegetable Fat) and Wine Acidity Match _ 0 _

(Food Fattiness = Wine Acid Yes=1, No=0)

Food and Wine Body Match __X__ ______ _ 1 _

(Food Overall Body = Wine Overall Body Yes=1, No=0)

Texture Subtotal ___ 2 ___

Lamb fattiness and wine tannins should interact to create a pleasant match.

Overall body of the lamb dish is slightly higher than the Bordeaux but does not overpower the wine creating a match.


Decision tree stage 3

Components Match

Texture

Flavors

Sweetness Match

Fattiness/Tannin Match or Fattiness/Wine Acid Match

Spiciness Match or Food Spicy/Wine Sweetness Match

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Overall Body

Acidity Match

Yes

No

Yes

No

Intensity Match

Salty Foods?

No

Yes

No

Yes

Persistency Match

Bitter Foods?

No

Yes

Yes

No

Flavor Type Match

Moderate to High Effervescence?

No

Yes

No

Yes

No Match

Refreshment

Neutral

Good Match

Synergistic Match

Decision Tree: Stage 3

Flavor elements have the potential to move this match from good to great!

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Figure 11 2c flavors wine bordeaux rouge food lamb two ways
Figure 11.2C: Flavors Match Wine: Bordeaux Rouge Food: Lamb two ways

0

5

10

F

L

A

V

O

R

S

F

3

Pepper

Spicy

Intensity

Basic flavor profile

Persistence

W

3

Pepper

Spicy

Intensity

Persistence


Figure 11 2c flavors wine bordeaux rouge food lamb two ways1
Figure 11.2C: Flavors Match Wine: Bordeaux Rouge Food: Lamb two ways

0

5

10

F

L

A

V

O

R

S

F

3

Pepper

Spicy

Peppery spice flavors in the lamb dish and wine (at about the same intensity) create a spiciness match – in level and type!

Intensity

Persistence

W

3

Pepper

Spicy

Intensity

Persistence


Figure 11 2c flavors wine bordeaux rouge food lamb two ways2
Figure 11.2C: Flavors Match Wine: Bordeaux Rouge Food: Lamb two ways

Flavor intensity is a partial match – the lamb is more intense than the wine – should we have selected a Bordeaux from the Left Bank?

Persistence in the wine and food provide a good match.

0

5

10

F

L

A

V

O

R

S

F

3

Pepper

Spicy

Intensity

Persistence

W

3

Pepper

Spicy

Intensity

Persistence


Figure 11 2c bottom section wine bordeaux rouge food lamb two ways
Figure 11.2C: Bottom Section Match Wine: Bordeaux Rouge Food: Lamb two ways

Food Flavor Type:

Wine Flavor Type:

Food Observations: Use of wine in the preparation of the braised lamb enhances match.

Wine Observations: Young, tannic red wine is smoothed with lamb fattiness.

Level of Food & Wine Match: Match based on:

0---1---2---3---4---5---6---7---8---9---10

Fruity

Nutty

Smoky

Cheesy

Herbal

Umami

Earthy

Other

Fruity

Nutty

Smoky

Buttery

Herbal

Floral

Earthy

Other

Complementary

Contrast

X

Components

None

Refreshment

Neutral

Good

Synergistic

X

Texture

X

Flavors

Comments:


Lower section of figure 11 4 flavor impact on predicted match
Lower Section of Figure 11.4: Flavor Impact on Predicted Match

FlavorSimilarity Contrast Score

Low to Moderate Spice Level Match __X__ ______ _ 1 _

(Food Spiciness = Wine Spiciness Yes=1, No=0)

Moderate Food Spice and Wine Sweetness ______ ______ _ 1 _

(Food Spiciness = Wine Sweetness Yes=1, No=0)

High Levels of Food Spice No Match

Flavor Intensity Match _ .5 _

(Food Intensity = Wine Intensity Yes=1, No=0)

Flavor Type Match __X__ ______ _ 1 _

(Flavors similar or contrasting Yes=1, No=0)

Flavor Persistency Match _ 1 _

(Food Persistence = Wine Persistence Yes=1, No=0)

Subtotal Flavor __ 4.5 __

A lower weight due to partial intensity match


Figure 11 4 total predicted match score lamb two ways and bordeaux rouge
Figure 11.4: Total Predicted match Score MatchLamb Two Ways and Bordeaux Rouge

Components Subtotal ___ 2 ___

Texture Subtotal ___ 2 ___

Subtotal Flavor ___ 4.5 ___

Total Predicted Match ___ 8.5 ___

Close to the actual average of 9/10 with a mixed tasting


Results of the decision tree and profile approach
Results of the Decision Tree and Profile Approach Match

  • Provides a strong connection to match level derived through mixed tasting.

  • Creates a systematic thought process for wine and food selection.

  • While good wine selection is based on substantial experience, this process allows the novice to develop critical assessment skills while developing food and wine pairing experience.


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