1. British East India Co. • Company that controlled trade areas in India – granted power by the Queen of England in 1600. • India was ruled by many independent states (Princes) as the Mogul Empire was being weakened by internal conflicts. • Opened the door for British to begin taking control.
Cartoon • 1. Why did some princes in India complain about the British East India Co? • “company acted like sovereign power” w/ own army, underpaid its taxes, meddled in politics
Cartoon: 2. How did the British win the Battle of Plassey? (1757) Had made deal with some Indians who would switch sides and help overthrow the Nawab (governors) Mir Jafar became British puppet.
Cartoon : 3. Why did the British East India Co. run into financial problems? (p. 3) Too many expenses: palaces, barracks, bungalows, uniforms, weapons, armies, servants, forts, personal fortunes 4. What was their solution and what were its results? Using the Indian treasury (taxes) - drove India into poverty 5. ultimate solution to their financial problems? • Opium
6. How did the British “become a government” in India? Turned Mir Jafar into puppet and directly collected taxes from Indian people
Sepoy Rebellion1857 • 2. Define Sepoys- • 3. Reasons for revolt : -rifle -resent western influence
4. Results • Britain will not TRUST the Indians w/ anything • Assert greater control and greater limitation of individual rights
1858 – Britain ended the E. India Co. • Sent VICEROY – monarch’s representative • Treaties w/ loyal independent Indian states and princes
Edward Vibart, a 19-year-old officer, also recorded his experience: It was literally murder... I have seen many bloody and awful sights lately but such a one as I witnessed yesterday I pray I never see again. The women were all spared but their screams on seeing their husbands and sons butchered, were most painful... Heaven knows I feel no pity, but when some old grey bearded man is brought and shot before your very eyes, hard must be that man's heart I think who can look on with indifference...
5. How did the British try to satisfy the Indians? • Economic development • Paved roads, railroads • Telegraph lines • Irrigation canals • Schools, universities • ……but forced western culture on them…
6.What is the Indian National Congress (INC)? Business and professional leaders form political party 7. What led to the creation of the INC? Forced western culture and economic problems caused by force agricultural changes (cotton instead of wheat) 8. What were the goals and ambitions of the INC? Self rule Ideas of democracy and equality
Prior to Opium War: • China was traditionally isolated and resists influence of other cultures. • Zhongguo - • center of the universe • “China is a sea which salts all rivers that run into it”
1. How and why did Opium become the main product of trade between the British and Chinese? • Britain demands tea from China • Could not afford to pay for tea in silver • Used opium –grown in India – as way to trade for tea – so the British could “grow” as much currency as it needed • Britain shipped Opium to Canton – traded Opium to Chinese merchants for silver- Chinese merchants brought the Opium into China
corrupt govt. officials would be bribed to allow the illegal drug trade • Britain would then use the silver to buy the tea
2. What caused the Opium Wars? • 1838 – China’s emperor sent officials to stop the trade- when these demands were ignored, they set fire to a years supply of opium.
3. What were the results? Unequal Treaties – Hong Kong- Extraterritoriality- Results for other western nations-
Open Door Into China
4. Open Door Policy: • Proposed by US in 1899 • Asking other Imperial powers to essentially respect each others spheres of influence • Why? – US felt they would be shut out of trading in China. ………. • In simpleton terms- they were late to the game and they were asking the others to let them play
5. Cause of Boxer Rebellion 1900 • Empress encourages anti-western hostility • Resent increasing Western influence and culture • Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (Boxers) – attack western property and civilians. • Results? • More unequal treaties and further western influence
6. Revolution 1911 • China embarassed by Opium War, Boxer Rebellion, and unequal treaties ……….. • A. Revolution against who/what: • The people blamed the government for corruption, weakness, and allowing the increased foreign (western) influence in China…………….demand change
B- What did the revolutionaries want? • Modernize China – create a Republic • C- Who led the revolution? • Sun Yat-sen • D- Sun Yat-sen formed the Guomindang or Nationalist Party 1905 *1908 2yr old Pu Yi – “The Last Emperor” – give strength to revolutionary movement
“….we are the poorest and weakest nation in the world and occupy the lowest position in international affairs. Other men are the carving knife and serving dish; we are the fish and the meat.” 1912- first president of the new Chinese Republic
E- Goals of the Guomindang • Three Principles of the People • Nationalism – self rule from weak corrupt govt. and from foreign rule • Democracy • Livelihood – economic well being
Japan • Japan was mostly “closed” to foreigners during the Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868) • Act of Seclusion- Banned foreigners and Banned Japanese from traveling to other countries………Why?
Why Japan began trading with the west (U.S) • Commodore Matthew Perry • 4 new US warships arrive in Tokyo (1853) • US goal- compete with Europeans in Asia • Learned from the Chinese experience in Opium Wars (1842) • Treaty of Kanagawa 1854
How did this affect trade b/w Japan and other western nations? • Tokugawa Shogunate becoming weaker • Opened Japan to more treaties with other western nations • “unequal treaties” • Led to overthrow of Tokugawa and creation of Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration • ………..if you cant beat ‘em………….. • “Rich Country, Strong Military” • Efforts to modernize Japan-Keep from being controlled by the West • Keep own culture, but practice imperialism • Turn away from shogunate towards parliamentary govt., install universal education, and industrialize ………remember the link between industry and imerialism………..??? • Revise “unequal treaties” • Why create overseas empire?..... • Need for natural resources
Wars • Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) to control Korea • Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) – control of Korea and Manchuria • Japan annex Korea (colony) 1910
Southeast Asia • Dutch, British, French, U.S. • Harsh, cruel and careless treatment • Culture system (forced labor) in Indonesia • Spanish American War - leads to first US colonies (Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines) • S.E. Asia and Pacific Islands offered natural resources and re-supplying stops