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France vs Britain and the lead-up to the American Revolution. Chapter 2. New France 1608-1763 (Review). 2 parts, Canada and Louisiana Friendly relations with Native Americans Sparsely populated: only 60,000 French settlers in mid 1700’s

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France vs britain and the lead up to the american revolution

France vs Britain and the lead-up to the American Revolution

Chapter 2

New france 1608 1763 review
New France 1608-1763 (Review)

  • 2 parts, Canada and Louisiana

  • Friendly relations with Native Americans

  • Sparsely populated: only 60,000 French settlers in mid 1700’s

  • Autocratic: no representative government, no trial by jury, no religious toleration

France vs britain 1689 1763
France vs. Britain 1689-1763

  • 4 colonial wars fought during this time

  • All pitted France (and Indian allies) and sometimes the Spanish vs the British (and Indian allies)

    • King William’s War 1689-1697

    • Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713

    • King George’s War 1744-1748

    • French and Indian War 1754-1763

French and indian war 1754 1763
French and Indian War 1754-1763

  • First time a war started in North America and spread to Europe

  • Involved large amounts of European resources (money, soldiers)

  • Fought over control of the Ohio River Valley (modern pay western PA, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan)

  • Began when George Washington encountered French soldiers near Fort Duquesne (modern-day Pittsburgh)

The french and indian war
The French and Indian War

  • Went badly for the British/Americans at first

  • 1757 New British Prime Minister (William Pitt) new strategy

    • Pay the Americans to fight (cheaper than sending all the soldiers over from Britain)

    • Don’t attack the French everywhere, just attack them in Canada

  • British successful war ends in 1763: British/Americans Win

Peace of paris 1763
Peace of Paris: 1763

  • Ended the war

  • Effects:

    • French gave all of Canada and Eastern half of Louisiana to the British

    • Spanish gave Florida to the British

    • To repay the Spanish for the loss of Florida the French gave the western half of Louisiana to the Spanish

    • No more French in North America

Significant aspects of french and indian war
Significant Aspects of French and Indian War

  • Albany Conference and the Albany Plan: 1754

    • 7 of the 13 colonies met in Albany to convince the Iroquois to join the war

    • Agreed to one commander of colonial forces (British General)

    • Benjamin Franklin proposed a plan (Albany Plan) to unite the colonies together under British rule (early version of the United States but still British)—never adopted

    • First step of the colonies working together, starting to become one country???

Significance of french and indian war aftermath
Significance of French and Indian War: Aftermath

  • Wars cost money, Britain had a large amount of debt

    • How do governments pay off their debts?

  • Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763

    • British soldiers permanently stationed in the west to prevent future Indian attacks

    • Proclamation of 1763

    • Why would these two things upset the colonies?

British taxation and other policies
British Taxation and Other Policies

  • British tried to get more money from the colonies through two main tactics:

    • 1-actually enforcing their mercantilist laws and taxes on shipping and imports

    • 2-passing taxes on the colonists themselves (not on imports)

  • Efforts to enforce mercantilist laws:

    • Admiralty Courts

      • Accused presumed guilty until proven innocent

      • Trials held in Novia Scotia (Canada) not in the colonies

    • Writs of Assistance

      • Customs officials could search warehouses, ships, houses without a warrant

British taxation and colonial reaction
British Taxation and Colonial Reaction

  • New Taxes passed on the colonists

    • 1764-Sugar Act—tax on imported sugar

      • James Otis—no taxation without representation in Parliament

    • 1765-Stamp Act—tax on official paper documents

      • Not a tax on imports, a tax on colonists themselves

      • Stamp Act Congress 1765 (9 colonies met)

        • Non-Importation Agreement—wouldn’t buy British goods

        • Taxation through representatives only

    • 1767-Townshend Acts

      • Stamp Act repealed, other taxes on imports increased

      • Customs officials in Boston attacked

      • Soldiers sent to protect them—Boston Massacre 1770

        • Townshend Acts repealed except one. . . . . .

Tea act and the boston tea party
Tea Act and the Boston Tea Party

  • Tea Act 1773—beginning of the chain of events that led directly to the beginning of the Revolution

    • Colonists refused to allow importation of tea—that way no taxes would be paid

    • Ships stuck in Boston Harbor

    • Boston Tea Party—December 1773

  • Repercussions to Tea Party

    • Coercive Acts 1774

      • Port of Boston closed

      • Massachusetts assembly shut down

      • New Quartering Act (soldiers in homes)

      • British soldiers tried in England not Boston

      • (Quebec Act)

Tea party to revolution
Tea Party to Revolution

  • 1st Continental Congress 1774

    • Met in response to the Coercive Acts

    • 12 of 13 colonies attended (all except Georgia)

    • Non-importation agreement

    • Communication among the colonies

    • Stockpiling of weapons and ammunition in case of war

  • Lexington and Concord 1775

    • Massachusetts government (in hiding) began to stockpile weapons in Lexington and Concord

    • British went to seize weapons and colonial leaders

    • Colonists attacked them

    • Beginning of the Revolutionary War

  • 2nd Continental Congress called in response to Lexington and Concord 1775

    • Functioned as the government of the 13 colonies(states) throughout the war

Early revolution 1775 1776
Early Revolution 1775-1776

  • Still not clear what was happening, war, independence, revolution?

  • 2nd Continental Congress made George Washington head of the Continental Army

  • Bunker Hill June 1775

    • Major British casualties—no turning back point

    • George III proclaimed the colonies in open rebellion

  • Common Sense-1776

    • By Thomas Paine convinced many to seek independence

  • Declaration of Independence July 1776

    • Influenced by the ideas of John Locke

    • Colonies no longer, 13 states, United States began

Rough times for the americans 1776 1777
Rough Times for the Americans 1776-1777

  • American forces faced numerous setbacks in the early days of the war

    • Defeated at Long Island/New York 1776

    • Lost control of Philadelphia 1777

    • Forced to flee to Valley Forge for the winter of 1777

  • A few exceptions

    • Trenton/Princeton winter of 1776—American victories

Turning of the tide saratoga 1777
Turning of the Tide: Saratoga 1777

  • Battle of Saratoga significantly changed the course of the war

    • British army under General Johnny Burgoyne surrounded in upstate New York (near Saratoga)

    • Americans forced the British to surrender—major victory

    • Significant: convinced the French to formally enter the war on the American side—1778

    • Others soon joined

      • Spain, Netherlands 1779

War in the south 1778 1781
War in the South 1778-1781

  • After Saratoga the British retreated back to New York City—hemmed in by Washington and the Continental Army

  • British attention shifted to the South

    • More loyalists there

    • Gain control of the South, divide the colonies, finish off Washington in the North later

  • Early British successes

    • British conquest of Georgia 1778-1779

    • Capture of Charleston (worst US defeat until WWII)

  • Americans strike back

    • Nathaniel Greene (from RI) the fighting Quaker

    • Americans win several minor battles against the British

    • British retreat to Yorktown Peninsula in Virginia to rest/recover

The end of the war yorktown and the west 1781 1783
The End of the War: Yorktown and the West 1781-1783

  • Yorktown 1781

    • British thought the sea would protect them, why?

    • British navy defeated by the French at the Battle of Chesapeake Capes 1781

    • Washington and French Army under command of Rochambeau snuck south to Yorktown

    • British surrounded and defeated, surrendered fall 1781

    • Last major battle of the war, war continued for 2 more years but it was clear that the US would win independence

  • Battles in the “West” (Upstate NY, Midwest)

    • Iroquois (British allies) defeated-1779

    • George Rogers Clark captured the west 1778-1779

Patriots vs loyalists the first civil war
Patriots vs. Loyalists: The first civil war?

  • Support for the Revolution was not universal inside the colonies

    • Patriots/Whigs—supported the Revolution

    • Loyalists/Tories—supported the British Government

    • Largest group of people were indifferent to the Revolution—didn’t pick one side or the other

  • Who were the loyalists?

    • Wealthy who didn’t want to risk their property (not always)

    • Recent immigrants from Britain (not always)

    • British soldiers who settled in America after the French and Indian War (not always)

    • Religious minorities who felt gratitude towards the British government for protecting their rights

    • African American loyalists

      • Promised freedom by the British—some got it some didn’t

    • Native American loyalists

      • 5 of the seven nations of the Iroquois confederacy remained loyal

  • Status after the War

Peace of paris 1783
Peace of Paris: 1783

  • 13 colonies achieved independence: United States formally recognized by Britain

  • In addition to the territory of the 13 colonies Britain gave the United states the eastern half of the Louisiana territory that it had taken from France after the French and Indian War in 1763

  • Spain regained Florida from the British

  • United States government was to recommend that the states reimburse loyalists for their lost property, stop persecuting loyalists, and repay British merchants for goods confiscated/destroyed during the war

    • Persecution of loyalists stopped, but repayment often did not

Social effects of the revolution
Social Effects of the Revolution

  • Greater equality among all social classes (rich/poor)

    • Fought together during the war, bred a sense of equality

    • Voting rights expanded—land qualifications for voting abandoned although money still required (had to pay taxes)

    • Poor/lower class made up a large % of elected officials (chart pg. 87) (In New England less than 20% before the war to over 60% after)

  • Greater freedoms for women

    • Some debate over extending full rights to women, but never adopted

    • Legal restrictions on women relaxed somewhat in the states (right to own property, etc.)

  • Emancipation for (some) Slaves

    • Gradual emancipation in the North

    • Manumission (voluntary freeing of slaves) in a few places in the South (DE, MD, VA)

    • British freed many slaves during the war

    • Most states outlawed the slave trade (if not slavery) after the war

Political effects of the revolution
Political Effects of the Revolution

  • Articles of Confederation 1781

    • Each state was like an independent country loosely allied together in the Confederation

    • States had a lot of power over their own affairs

    • King/Parliament replaced by Congress—Congress didn’t have very many powers (couldn’t tax, regulate trade, etc.)

  • Increase in “democracy” in the state constitutions

    • Democracy vs republic

    • State constitutions gave the people more power than they had before

      • Assemblies more powerful, governors weaker

      • Governors and upper house elected by the people—not appointed like before

      • State Bills of Rights limited what the state governments could do

        • Couldn’t limit freedom of speech, religion, etc

  • Increase of religious freedom in the states

    • Southern states ended official religions

    • New England states didn’t abolish their official religions until the early 1800’s

Revolutionary period questions
Revolutionary Period Questions

  • Often people think of the American Revolution as patriotic Americans trying to fight for democracy against a tyrannical British king, how is this description accurate and inaccurate?

  • What explains how a disunited and relatively disorganized United States was able to defeat the British Empire—the most powerful Empire in the world during that time?

  • The Articles of Confederation were a very democratic form of government. Are there any disadvantages to having a government that is very democratic?