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Ornamental Insect Pests

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  1. Ornamental Insect Pests Chazz Hesselein Extension Horticulturist

  2. Cool Season Insect Pests Broad and Cyclamen Mites • Mostly a greenhouse problem may also be a problem in azaleas; attacks many species • Symptoms include distorted new growth, cessation of new growth • Cool season mite • Very tiny, hard to seed even with 10x hand lens

  3. Cool Season Insect Pests Broad Mites Broad Mites Broad Mite Eggs

  4. Cool Season Insect Pests Broad Mite Damage

  5. Broad Mite Damage

  6. Cool Season Insect Pests Southern Red Mites • Populations build in cool weather • Hosts- Azaleas, Japanese Hollies • Feeding damage causes stippling and bronzing • Crushed mites will stain hands • Generally found first on older foliage

  7. Southern Red Mites

  8. Cool Season Insect Pests Southern Red Mites

  9. Cool Season Insect Pests Southern Red Mites • Sanmite, Hexygon, Floramite, Avid, Akari, Horticultural Oils, Tetrasan • Good coverage important

  10. Cool Season Insect Pests Aphids Keys to identification • Key species, green peach, cotton/melon, crepe myrtle • Piercing-sucking mouth parts, excrete honeydew (sooty mold) • Cast exoskeletons and sooty mold may be first noticeable symptoms • Abdomen has two “stovepipes” (cornicles)

  11. Cool Season Insect Pests • Aphids • Life Cycle • Females born “pregnant” (parthenogenesis) and don’t lay eggs but give birth to female nymphs • When populations explode, alates (winged insects) formed- rapid migration • Endeavor, Marathon/Merit Botanigard, Flagship Horticultural Oils, Soaps, many others

  12. Cool Season (?) Insect Pests Florida Wax Scale • Really a warm season pest • Most commonly found on Chinese hollies but can be found on many other hosts including cleyera and Indian hawthorn

  13. Cool Season (?) Insect Pests Florida Wax Scale • Two generations per year • Need to target sprays for crawlers or star stages (Early May and Early-Mid August)

  14. Cool Season (?) Insect Pests Florida Wax Scale • Distance, Marathon/Merit, Horticultural Oils, many others Crawlers

  15. Cool Season (?) Insect Pests

  16. Cool Season (?) Insect Pests Azalea Lace Bug • Adults and nymphs will survive mild winters • Symptoms appear on older foliage first. Stippling, tarry frass. • Marathon/Merit, Flagship, many other insecticides • Good coverage important

  17. Cool Season (?) Insect Pests Azalea Lace Bug

  18. Asian Ambrosia Beetle

  19. Warm Season Insect Pests Strawberry Rootworm • Relatively new pest of azaleas, itea, cotoneaster

  20. Warm Season Insect Pests Strawberry Rootworm • Adults feed at night on foliage and create visual damage. They hide in media, leaf axils and buds during the day • Larvae found in media

  21. Warm Season Insect Pests Strawberry Rootworm • Orthene, Decathlon, DuraGuard, Sevin many others • Spray in evening or at night

  22. Warm Season Insect Pests Whiteflies • Adults- white “flies”, nymphs- “scale-like” • Piercing-sucking mouth parts, excrete honeydew

  23. Silverleaf Whitefly Greenhouse Whitefly Parasitized Unparasitized

  24. Warm Season Insect Pests • Whiteflies • Woody hosts include: Nandina, Gardenia, Citrus • Wide range of hosts in flowering crops, especially poinsettias • Endeavor, Marathon/Merit, Flagship, Sanmite, Distance, Horticultural Oils

  25. Warm Season Insect Pests Tea Scale • Multiple generations per year • Chinese hollies and camellia common hosts • Good coverage important • Distance, Horticultural Oils, many others (not Marathon)

  26. Warm Season Insect Pests Tea Scale Females Juveniles Males

  27. Warm Season Insect Pests Tea Scale Symptoms

  28. Warm Season Insect Pests Mealybugs • Life cycle- egg, nymph, non-feeding winged adult male • Insects protected by waxy covering • Produce honeydew/sooty mold. High populations can kill plants.

  29. Warm Season Insect Pests Mealybugs • Control measures • Biological Control • Chemical Controls Enstar, Talstar, Flagship, Marathon/Merit, Orthene, Duraguard

  30. Warm Season Insect Pests Mealybugs Egg Mass Pink Hibiscus Mealybug

  31. Warm Season Insect Pests Twospotted Spider Mites • Hosts include buddleia, hydrangea, roses • Mostly a pest of herbaceous plants • Symptoms include stippling, webbing, necrotic burning

  32. Warm Season Insect Pests Twospotted Spider Mites • Short life cycle, populations can rapidly explode • Akari, Floramite, Hexygon, Ovation, Pylon, Sanmite, Tetrasan, Avid, Horticultural Oils, Soaps

  33. Warm Season Insect Pests Thrips • Life Cycle • Egg, laid in host • larvae, wingless found on host • pupae, non-feeding, most found in soil • adults, winged, migrating form if host is unsuitable • Monitoring • Sticky cards

  34. Warm Season Insect Pests Thrips • Monitoring (cont.) • Blow into flowers and tap flower onto hand or sheet of paper • Damage • Feed in flowers, flower and vegetative buds • Transmit tospoviruses (TSWV, INSV)

  35. Warm Season Insect Pests Adult Thrips Thrips Frass, Damage and Thrips

  36. Warm Season Insect Pests Thrips Gloxinia- tospovirus symptoms Impatiens- tospovirus symptoms

  37. Warm Season Insect Pests Thrips • Control Measures • Chemical Control Conserve, Botanigard, Pedestal, Avid, Pyrethroid+O.P. (e.g., Duraplex)

  38. Cool Season Insect Pests Broad and Cyclamen Mites Control Measures • Hot water treatment (dip) • 111oF for 15 minutes • Chemical Control • Sanmite, Pylon, Kelthane, Thiodan

  39. Warm Season Insect Pests “Worms” • Many species and hosts • Commonly problem in Boston Fern production (infestation produce distinctive odor)

  40. Warm Season Insect Pests “Worms” • Larvae of moths and butterflies • Chewing damage, need to identify causal agent • Conserve, Confirm, Pylon, B.t. Products, many others

  41. Bagworms • Pests of evergreens (leyland cypress, junipers) • Adult Females wingless “worms”, adult males moths • Moths mate and eggs are laid within the bag in the fall. • Hand pick bags in winter before eggs hatch • Spray in early Spring to control young worms. B.t., Orthene, Spinosad, Malathion, others

  42. Oleander Caterpillar

  43. Larger Canna Leafroller

  44. Year Round Pest Fungus Gnats • Complete life cycle- egg, larva, pupa, adult • Larvae feed on fungi and roots • Adults can vector root diseases • Monitor with sticky cards (adults) and potato slices (larvae)

  45. Year Round Pest Fungus Gnats • Control Measures • Cultural control Eliminate excess water Hydrated lime, copper sulfate under benches • Biological Control Gnatrol (B.t. israelensis)] Nemasys (Steinernemafeltiae) Azatin

  46. Year Round Pest Fungus Gnats • Control Measures • Chemical Controls Duraguard ME, KnoxOut GH Adept, Citation, Distance, Precision

  47. Year Round Pest Fungus Gnats Fungus Gnat Larvae Sticky Card Monitoring Fungus Gnat Moth Fly Shore Fly

  48. Imported and Quarantine Pests Asian Longhorn Beetle

  49. Imported and Quarantine Pests Asian Longhorn Beetle

  50. Insect Pest Management • Sanitation • Pre-inspection and quarantine • Scouting and record keeping • Proper Identification • Crop selection • Maintaining optimum plant health • Establish Thresholds