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Insect Pests and Management. OBJECTIVE: Identifying and scouting for common insect pests encountered in the garden and methods of control. Specialists vs. Generalists. _______________________ - insects that attack a small range of plants or within a single plant family.

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insect pests and management

Insect Pests and Management

OBJECTIVE:

Identifying and scouting for common insect pests encountered in the garden and methods of control.

specialists vs generalists
Specialists vs. Generalists
  • _______________________ - insects that attack a small range of plants or within a single plant family.
    • Cucumber beetles - cucurbitaceae
    • Tomato hornworm – solanaceae
  • __________________- insects that attack a wide range of plants or many plant families.
    • Grasshopper
    • Aphid
    • Japanese beetle

Grasshopper

Aphids

slide3

What do we have for dinner, dear?

Oh, Don’t worry dear!

We have a lot to choose from. They don’t call us the generalists for nothing.

insects that suck
Insects that “Suck!”
  • Small, soft-bodied insects with slender mouth parts, which suck out plant juices.
    • Aphids - attack stems and leaves
    • ____________________ - attack leaves
    • ________________ - attack leaves, flowers, fruit, and other insects
    • Leaf Hoppers - attack leaves of beans, eggplant, and fruit crops
    • White Flies - attack beans, solanaceae, and fruit

Spider

Mites

Thrips

insects that chew
Insects that Chew
  • Those insects that chew and digest vegetative and reproductive plant parts.
    • ___________ ______ - attack brassica leaves
    • Cucumber beetle - attack entire cucurbit plants
    • Corn borer - bore into ears of corn
    • Tomato hornworm - attack tomato leaves and fruit
    • _____________ - attack anything and everything
    • Flea beetle - attack leaves of solanaceae, lettuce, and greens
    • Colorado potato beetle - attack leaves of potato and eggplant
insects that chew1
Insects that Chew

a

c

d

a. Colorado Potato

Beetle

b. Flea beetle

c. Cabbage worm

d. Corn borer

e. Japanese beetle

b

e.

scouting for insects damaged plants
Scouting for insects: damaged plants?
  • If insects are eating your plants, they leave a distinct ___________________ behind
    • Aphid - sticky, honeydew, and crispy leaves
    • Cucumber beetles - chewed leaves and stems, netted and wilting leaves
    • Flea beetles - pocked, curled leaves
    • ____________________- stippled leaves and webs
    • Thrips - patchy scars on leaves
    • Leaf miners - subsurface discolored leaf trails
    • Caterpillars - chewed leaf margins and fruit
scouting for insects eggs larvae nymphs or adults
Scouting for insects: eggs, larvae, nymphs, or adults?
  • Another way to scout for insects is to observe whether or not they are present in some __________________.
    • Eggs
    • Larvae
    • Nymphs
    • Adults
  • Insects leave “_______________” behind too!
controls beneficial insects
Controls: Beneficial Insects
  • Many insects either parasitize or feed on insects that eat your plants.
    • Parasitic Wasps - attracted to flower pollen and lay their eggs on or within many herbivore eggs and larvae
    • Convergent Lady Beetles - feed on herbivore eggs and larvae, as well as aphids
    • Predaceous Mites - feed on pest mites
    • Green Lacewings - feed on aphids, thrips, and mites
    • Assassin Bugs - attack almost any insect
    • Bigeyed Bugs - attracked to flower nectar and feed on small insects and their eggs
    • Soldier Beetles - feed on aphids
controls beneficial insects1
Controls: Beneficial Insects

Big eyed bug

Assasin bug

Lady bird

Green lacewing

Soldier beetle

controls cultural
Controls: Cultural
  • The environment provided will impact the degree to which pests are a problem.
    • OM
    • Soil Moisture
    • Crop Residues
    • Fertility
    • ________________ Rotation - avoid specific pest colonization
    • Resistant Cultivars - prevent excessive damage
    • Soil Solarization - reduced soil inhabiting pests
    • Pest Barriers - prevent pest access to plants
    • _________________ Planting - lure pests away from crops

Varying these levels will

determine population numbers

of different insects.

controls natural compounds
Controls: Natural Compounds
  • Organic pesticides are derived from naturally occurring substances and control ________________ groups of insects.
    • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) - lepidopteran larvae
    • Diatomaceous earth - leaf chewing insects
    • Pyrethrum - cucumber beetles, squash bugs, mealy bugs, moth larvae

Pretty me!

Dalmation chrysanthemums

used for production of pyrethrum

controls natural compounds1
Controls: Natural Compounds
  • Rotenone - beetles, thrips, loopers
  • Insecticidal Soap - white flies, mites, “suckers”
  • Neem - Japanese and other beetles
  • Pepper Wax - aphids, leaf hoppers, flea beetles
controls synthetic compounds
Controls: Synthetic Compounds
  • Many insecticides are synthetically derived and can control a _____________ spectrum of insects - dependent on dosage.
  • Most synthetic insecticides are recommended by ___________________ rather than by ____________________ due to their full spectrum effectiveness.
  • Issues include: hazard, toxicity, restricted use
    • Sevin - controls many insects at various stages; toxic to honey bees
    • Pounce - several worms and beetles
    • Lorsban - aphids, worms, maggots