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17th Century ( 1625 – 1700). The Cavaliers & Puritans. Turmoil Religious & Political. Queen Elizabeth dies 1603 King James 1603-1625 King Charles 1625-1649 Oliver Cromwell 1642 - 1660 King Charles II 1660 - 1685 “GLORIOUS REVOLUTION”. The Controversy. Royal family are Anglican

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17th century 1625 1700

17th Century(1625 – 1700)




turmoil religious political

TurmoilReligious & Political

Queen Elizabeth dies 1603

King James 1603-1625

King Charles 1625-1649

Oliver Cromwell 1642 - 1660

King Charles II 1660 - 1685


the controversy

The Controversy

Royal family are Anglican

(Catholic sympathizers)


Common people are

Protestant sympathizers

divine right of kings

Divine Right of Kings

King is Head of

Church & State

king james

King James

Not a picture of health…

-- crippling arthritis-- weak limbs-- colic (digestion problems)-- gout-- difficulty walking -- tongue problems

After numerous attempts on his life, he required constant care.

Invented British flag -- combined England's red cross of St. George with Scotland's white cross of St. Andrew.

religious non conformity

Religious Non-Conformity



Church government styles

congregation vs. bishop

liturgical vs. non-liturgical

king james the non conformists

King James & the Non-conformists

“I shall make them conform themselves

or I will harry them out of the land, or else…do worse.”

king charles

King Charles

Angers Parliament

Angers Puritans

Private arrests, trials

Catholicize worship (High Church)

Last straw - Presbyterian Scots & the new liturgy!

civil war


Roundheads = Puritans

Cavaliers = Royal Loyalists

Council of State - backed by revolutionary officers

Cromwell assumes control as “Lord Protector of the Commonwealth”

The Bloody Revolution!KingCharles beheaded in 1649!

cromwell s rule

Cromwell’s Rule

Puritan strictness

Military power

Suppression of theatre

& other frivolous activities


the restoration

The Restoration

Cromwell’s death dooms Puritan rule

Parliament asks King Charles II back from exile in Holland

People revolted vs. Puritan strictness

charles ii

Charles II

Catholic sympathizer

Repressive religious measures

Allied to Catholic France

Discontent grows vs. monarchy

james ii

James II

Catholic sympathizer

appoints Catholics to influential govt & military posts

Vatican reps in court

religious persecution of Scottish Protestants

glorious revolution bloodless revolution

Glorious Revolution(Bloodless Revolution)

William of Orange (Protestant)

Mary (James II’s daughter)

Parliament asks them to rule in place of James II

New limited monarchy

historic events

Historic Events

Great Plague

in London





historic events1

Historic Events

Great Fire of London - 1666

(Christopher Wren - rebuilder)

cavalier poets lovelace suckling herrick

Cavalier Poets-- Lovelace, Suckling, Herrick --


supporters of the King

topics of wine, women, war & love

simple & easy to understand

avoided religious topics

witty & satirical

“Tribe of Ben”

metaphysical poets donne herbert later herrick

Metaphysical Poets-- Donne, Herbert, later Herrick --


Not happy with the King

religious & philosophical topics

challenging, demanding, symbolic

metaphysical conceits – unusual metaphors

17th century poetry

17th Century Poetry

John Milton

Paradise Lost (over 10,000 lines)

Puritan look at fall into sin

“justify the ways of God to man”

great English classic

17th century poetry1

17th Century Poetry

John Dryden

Poet laureate of Charles II

Neoclassic style (odes & satires)

literary criticism

essayist - “father of modern prose”



17th century drama

17th Century Drama

Ben Jonson


- Satiric Comedy

- Tragicomedy

- Comedy of Manners

Puritans close theater

Actresses acceptable by end of century

He was not of an age, but for all time. -- To the Memory of Shakespeare

17th century prose

17th Century Prose

Scientific writing

Hobbes & Locke – Philosophical writing

Izaak Walton – The Compleat Angler

John Dryden – Literary criticism

Samuel Pepys – The Diary (in code)

John Bunyan – The Pilgrim’s Progress

King James Bible

john bunyan

Our Father which in heaven art,Thy name be always hallowed;Thy kingdom come, thy will be done;Thy heavenly path be followedBy us on earth as 'tis with thee,We humbly pray;And let our bread us given be,From day to day.Forgive our debts as we forgiveThose that to us indebted are:Into temptation lead us not,But save us from the wicked snare.The kingdom's thine, the power too,We thee adore;The glory also shall be thineFor evermore.

John Bunyan

bunyan s pilgrim s progress

Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress

Written in prison

Main character is Christian

Allegory of Christian Life

“Last great Christian classic”

samuel pepys diary writer

Samuel Pepys –Diary Writer

June 15th

The Duke of Yorke not yet come to town. The town grows very sickly, and people to be afeared of it - there dying this last wek of the plague 112, from 43 the week before - whereof, one in Fanchurch-street and one in Broadstreete by the Treasurer's office.

watch for

Watch for . . .

Spelling becoming set (1st dictionaries)

Satire - moral writing to expose evil

Heroic couplet in poetry

Rise of comedies

Shakespeare considered “rough, uncultured” - not often performed