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Training and Graduation Project Unit Graduation Project II Fall 2010. Liquefied Petroleum Gas plant design Faculty Advisor: Dr. Mohamed A. Nakoua Group members. Acknowledgment .

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Training and Graduation Project UnitGraduation Project II

Fall 2010

Liquefied Petroleum Gas plant design

Faculty Advisor: Dr. Mohamed A. Nakoua

Group members

acknowledgment
Acknowledgment
  • We would like to express our deepest gratitude and appreciation to our project advisor Dr. Mohamed Nakoua for his guidance, continuous encouragement and support to complete this work.
outline
Outline
  • Introduction to LPG
  • Process alternatives
  • Material and energy balance
  • Equipment detailed design
  • HAZOP study
  • Cost estimations
  • Conclusions
introduction to lpg
Introduction to LPG
  • Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a term describing a group of hydrocarbon-based gases derived from crude oil or natural gas.
  • LPG is mainly a mixture of two gases: propane and butane.
  • LPG has wide uses in the world such as:
      • fuel
      • heating and cooking
      • Transportation
lpg in uae
LPG in UAE
  • UAE holds the 6th largest proven natural gas reserves in the world.
  • Natural Gas consumption

is increasing in UAE

.

lpg needs
LPG Needs
  • Economically valuable because of its wide uses and considerable energy content
    • A single pound of propane can generate 21,548 BTU (British Thermal Units) of energy, while butane can produce 21,221 BTU per pound.
  • LPG carbon emission is less than CO2 emission from crude oil fuels.
two alternatives for plant processes
Two Alternatives for Plant Processes
  • First alternative
  • Second alternative
material and energy balance
Material and Energy Balance
  • Material Balance:

Molar flow rates and compositions for each stream were found.

  • Energy Balance:

Heat duties and temperatures were found.

equipment design
Equipment Design
  • Design of main equipment was carried out
  • Main equipment designed are : distillation column, absorber, reboiler and heat exchanger
  • Different methods were used:
    • Mathematical equations
    • Graphical method
    • HYSYS software
  • Results for different methods were compared
distillation column design
Distillation Column Design
  • Deethanizer is the selected distillation column to be design
  • Underwood method was used
other distillation columns design
Other Distillation Columns Design
  • Distillation design results :
absorber and stripper design
Absorber and Stripper Design

H2S: 0.0%

CO2: 3%

H2S: 0.6%

CO2: 7%

required data
Required Data
  • H2S entering is much less than CO2
  • Reaction rate of H2S in amine solutions is higher than that of CO2
slide18

Number of trays calculation

Number of trays was calculated by:

slide19

Edmister Method (1947)

  • K (equilibrium constant of CO2 in DEA) values were obtained from HYSYS.
graphical method
Graphical Method
  • Two curves were plotted:
    • Over all material balance.
    • Equilibrium data (CO2 in DEA)
hysys simulation
HYSYS Simulation
  • Number of trays was changed until

required separation was achieved.

final results
Final Results
  • Comparison between the three methods:
  • Final results
pump design
Pump Design
  • The type is centrifugal pumps
  • Power is given by:

Discharge

Suction

reflux drums design
Reflux Drums Design
  • Drums are horizontally mounted.
  • Volume is calculated by:
  • Τ (residence time) = 5 min
  • Diameter is found by:
design of heat exchanger
Design of Heat Exchanger

T = 27 oC

T = - 6 oC

shell and tube heat exchanger
Shell and tube heat exchanger
  • Consists of one shell pass, with numbers of tubes in six passes attached to an end plate called bundle.
standards
Standards
  • Overall heat transfer coefficient (U),( 30 – 300 W/m2.oC)
  • Heat exchanger length (L), ( 2.5 – 6.5 m)
  • Heat transfer area (A), (10 – 1000 m2)
  • Tube velocity (ut) for gases, (3 – 10 m/s)
  • Pressure drop (∆P), ( <= 3 psi )
slide32

Design Results

U assumed = 67.1 W/m2.oC

kettle reboiler
Kettle Reboiler
  • Consists of one shell pass, with U tubes arrangementattached to an end plate called bundle.
design result
Design Result
  • Final results for designed reboiler
safety hazop considerations
Safety & HAZOP Considerations
  • HAZOP is important to prevent all possible dangers present in the plant
  • Operating plant deals with H2S and CO2(toxic gases)
  • Safeguards should be considered
cost estimation
Cost Estimation
  • Cost estimation is the most important point to study and evaluate in project management
  • Cost estimation is divided into:
    • Capital cost
    • Manufacturing cost (COM)
capital cost
Capital Cost
  • Capital cost was calculated by:
    • Bare module cost equations
    • CAPCOST program
capital cost1
Capital Cost
  • Total bare module cost:
cost of manufacturing com
Cost of Manufacturing (COM)
  • COM is the cumulative total of resources that are directly used in the process
    • Fixed Capital Investment (FCI)
    • Operation labour (UT)
    • Waste treatment (WT)
    • Raw material (RM)
results of com
Results of COM
  • The following table shows the COM:
profitability of project
Profitability of Project
  • Profit =∑ Income from sales – COM
  • Cash = Profit + depreciation (COMd)
conclusions
Conclusions
  • An LPG Plant process flow diagram was prepared
  • Main units were designed
  • Environmental issues were considered
  • HAZOP study was carried for main units
  • Plant cost was estimated
  • LPG Plant project is feasible
  • LPG production rate is 16746054 ton/yr
  • Yearly profit is 6.473 x 109 $/yr
  • The project is able to achieve its requirements.
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Other capital cost is to be considered: land, working capital and installation of units
  • Communicate with industry for the acheived work