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Reducing Petroleum Consumption of Trucks. Outline of Presentation. Background: oil and transportation Stats showing trends in the trucking industry Sampling of methods for both improving fuel efficiency and reducing consumption of petroleum in heavy duty trucks.

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outline of presentation
Outline of Presentation
  • Background: oil and transportation
    • Stats showing trends in the trucking industry
  • Sampling of methods for both improving fuel efficiency and reducing consumption of petroleum in heavy duty trucks
methods of reducing petroleum consumption by trucks
Methods of Reducing Petroleum Consumption by Trucks
  • Conventional methods
  • Technologies
  • Hybrid technologies
  • Alternative fuels
issues limiting fuel efficiency improvements for hd trucks
Issues Limiting Fuel Efficiency Improvements for HD Trucks
  • No Fuel Efficiency standards for heavy duty trucks
  • Government regulation is more focused on lowering emissions
  • Relatively low price of diesel fuel
    • Low fuel tax on Diesel fuel: 24.4 ¢
    • Cheaper to produce than gasoline
oil and transportation today
Oil and Transportation Today
  • Highway transportation alone uses over 1/2 of the nation’s oil demand
  • Transportation consumes about 2/3 of the nation’s oil demand
  • US transportation sector is 97% dependent on petroleum fuels
  • Transportation uses all domestic oil production plus 40% of imports
  • Number of vehicles on our roads and miles driven continue to steadily increase
why we need more energy efficient heavy vehicles
Why We Need More Energy Efficient Heavy Vehicles
  • Essentially all of the increase in highway transportation fuel use since 1973 has been due to trucks
  • 1996: highway energy use by trucks exceeded that of automobiles for the first time in US history
  • Our nation's economic health depends on HD vehicles, which transport the bulk of our country's goods
gross domestic product and trucks
Gross Domestic Product and Trucks
  • The Nation’s economy is linked to efficient heavy vehicle transportation
fuel use by truck class
Fuel Use by Truck Class
  • Fuel use of Class 8 trucks, at 18 billion gallons per year, far exceeds that of commercial trucks in any other weight class
fuel use by truck class and trip length
Fuel Use by Truck Class and Trip Length
  • Class 8 Long haul trucks use about 13 billion gallons of fuel/yr
  • Class 8 short haul trucks less than 1/2 that amount at 5 billion gallons of fuel/yr
reasons diesel is the preferred fuel for hd trucks
Reasons Diesel is the Preferred Fuel for HD Trucks
  • Diesel fuel has a higher energy density than gasoline
    • 1 gallon of diesel fuel contains approximately 147,000 BTU of energy
    • 1 gallon of gasoline contains appproximately125,000 BTU of energy
  • Diesel fuel evaporates much more slowly than gasoline
    • its boiling point is actually higher than the boiling point of water
  • Diesel requires less refining than gasoline
diesel engines are more powerful
Diesel Engines are More Powerful
  • Higher compression ratio with Diesel engines
  • The higher the compression ratio, the more power is generated by the engine
    • Gasoline engine compresses at a ratio of 8:1 to 12:1
    • Diesel engine compresses at a ratio of 14:1 to as high as 25:1
diesel engines need to be hot
Diesel Engines Need to Be Hot
  • Diesel engine has no spark plug to produce heat
  • Direct Injection Process:
    • It intakes air and compresses it, and then it injects the fuel directly into the combustion chamber
    • The heat of the compressed air is what actually lights the fuel in a diesel engine
  • When a diesel engine is cold, the compression process may not raise the air to a high enough temperature to ignite the fuel
    • Big reason for idling
policy for conventional measures
Policy for Conventional measures
  • With a 25% shortage of imported oil, prices are sure to rise and fleet operators as well as independent drivers will look to basic methods of improving efficiency first, because they represent the cheapest and quickest alternatives
proper vehicle maintenance
Proper Vehicle Maintenance
  • Although diesel engines don’t require tune-ups, it is important to replace fuel filters at the proper intervals
  • Keeping all axles both drive and steer, properly aligned to minimize rolling resistance
proper vehicle maintenance21
Proper Vehicle Maintenance
  • Monitoring fuel quality at the pump
    • dirty fuel causes the fuel injectors to clog or disrupt the spray pattern negatively affecting fuel efficiency
  • Repairing any body damage
    • For example, that front corner of the dinged-up bumper hanging down hurts the vehicle's aerodynamics, and thus, fuel economy suffers
switch to synthetic lubricants
Switch to Synthetic Lubricants
  • Replacing popular conventional engine and driveline lubricants with synthetic lubricants in Class 8 diesel-fueled vehicles has been shown to increase fuel mileage up to 8.2%
  • Saves $, because less frequent fluid changes are required
proper inflation of tires
Proper Inflation of Tires
  • Over/under inflating tires increase fuel consumption
  • For every 3 lbs. Below proper pressure, fuel efficiency decreases by 1%
reducing speed of trucks
Reducing Speed of Trucks
  • Trucks burn an additional 0.1 gallons of fuel for each mile-an-hour increase in speed over 55 mph
  • Slower shifting through the gears
    • Slower Starts from stop
  • Cost benefit analysis:
    • is the time you save worth the cost of the extra fuel?
idling away fuel
Idling Away Fuel
  • Accordingto the Department of Energy’s largest research center, Argonne National Laboratory the average truck sits idling for up to 1,800 hours each year, which is an equivalent of 75 straight days
idling away fuel27
Idling Away Fuel
  • Trucks typically consume 0.8 gallons of fuel/hr during idling
  • American trucking association estimates that idling for only one hour/day for a year results in the equivalent of 64,000 miles of engine wear and wastes over 500 gallons of fuel
idling away fuel28
Idling Away Fuel
  • Dept. Of Energy estimates that, as an industry, trucking wastes 900 million gallons of diesel fuel each year, just from idling
legislation on idling
Legislation on Idling
  • Federal government currently has no policy limiting vehicle idling
  • Only about a dozen states that have explicit laws against excessive idling
    • State wide: CT, HI, MA, MD, NH, NJ, NV, NY, VA
  • However, most states have nuisance laws that prohibit excessive idling
industry idling avings
Industry – Idling = $avings
  • Many fleets already have rules in place to limit driver idling time
  • Some fleets have installed equipment that automatically turns off the engine when a vehicle has been idling for a certain amount of time
  • UPS has placed an outright ban on idling
federal government
Federal Government
  • U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologiesconsistent with its mission to reduce petroleum consumption, and dependence on foreign oil, has begun a program to inform truck operators about the significant advantages of reduced idling
why do truckers idle
Why Do Truckers Idle?
  • To keep the cab/sleeper

heated or cooled

  • To keep the fuel warm in the winter
  • To keep the engine warm to avoid cold starting it in the winter
  • Because all the other drivers do it
apu to reduce idling
APU to Reduce Idling
  • Willis Truck APU
  • Uses industry-proven Kubota 3-cylinder engine to run the APU
  • Uses less than a quart/hour of diesel fuel with a full load, as compared to 1.0 to 1.2 gallons/hour when idling the main engine
  • Eliminates engine idling, thereby reducing fuel usage as well as emissions
  • Functions as an integrated alternator, heat exchanger and air conditioning compressor
  • Maintains a comfortable living atmosphere by providing heating, air conditioning, and electricity to the cab and sleeper
  • Allows for the elimination of electric starter and three to four batteries when used in conjunction with air start operation
  • Provides a dependable source of power to support the running and maintaining of all electrical systems
  • Including all the running lights for both tractor and trailer, and modern communications and location systems, while truck is parked
  • Monitors and maintains engine temperature
  • Monitors battery voltage and recharges when necessary
products to reduce idling
Products to Reduce Idling
  • Superior noise attenuation keeps noise levels down
    • around truck stops
    • along highways, and
    • at rest stops
  • Reduces the possibility of violating the idling and nuisance laws
the superdrive transmission42
The SuperDrive Transmission
  • How it works:
  • Technology uses a hydraulic transmission system to uncouple engine rpm from wheel speed and then allows the electronic control module to seek the lowest rpm at which sufficient torque is available to maintain the desired speed
  • Operates at 70 miles per hour at near engine idle rpm
energy avings
Energy $avings
  • Heavy-duty trucks consume about 18 billion gallons of total fuel annually and SuperDrive is expected to improve fuel economy by 20% to 25%
  • Assuming a 20% improvement in fuel economy and an average gas cost of $1.50 per gallon, the potential savings could be $7500 per truck annually
regenerative drive system
Regenerative Drive System
  • Hybrid powertrains appear to be promising for Class 8 urban use trucks where stop-and-go driving is prevalent, or in hilly or mountainous areas
how it works
How it works
  • The RDS captures energy generated by a vehicle’s braking process, then releases the energy back into the driveline as power is needed
  • Key design features include an innovative inline drive shaft, energy storage devices that utilize special composite materials, ultra-light-weight metals, and advanced hydraulic and electronic engineering
potential fuel savings
Potential Fuel Savings
  • Permo-Drive Technologies’ hybrid hydraulic drive system can reduce fuel consumption for trucks and buses by up to
    • 40 percent in local stop and go urban driving conditions
    • 15 percent in hilly or mountainous areas
alternative fuels
Alternative Fuels
  • Fuels that use existing diesel engine technology or slightly modified
  • Fuels types
    • Natural gas based fuel
      • Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
    • Biodiesel
storage of lng
Storage of LNG
  • Turning natural gas into LNG requires cooling the gas to -160° C (-260° F)
    • fuel becomes denser & more easily transportable
  • Storage of LNG:
    • Fueling stations with equipment to cool the gas
    • Trucks must have tanks capable of keeping the LNG cool until usage
onboard storage delivery of lng
The fueling system utilizes a double-walled, cryogenic tank with an air seal

The insulated tanks keep the fuel cold without requiring additional refrigeration while on board the truck

When the truck engine is operating, LNG is pumped from the tank as a liquid and the temperature is then increased through the use of a heat exchanger supplied with engine coolant, which returns the LNG to a gaseous state

The gas is then delivered to the engine under pressure

Onboard Storage & Delivery of LNG
dual fuel natural gas dfng engines
Dual-fuel natural gas (DFNG) engines
  • These engines can be run on diesel only but cannot be run on natural gas only because the autoignition characteristics of natural gas are poor
    • At idle and low load conditions they burn mostly diesel fuel
  • At full load, a small pilot injection of diesel fuel is used to ignite the main charge of natural gas; over the full cycle, the engines burn up to 95% natural gas
  • Basically the same power and performance of normal diesel engines
how it works lng in a high compression diesel engine
How It Works: LNG in a high compression diesel engine
  • Use of a high pressure direct-injection fuel injector capable of introducing a small amount of diesel fuel into the cylinder during compression to create ignition, followed by a much larger injection of natural gas to generate power on the down stroke.
how it works lng in a high compression diesel engine55
How It Works: LNG in a high compression diesel engine
  • The heat of compression ignites the diesel fuel, which in turn ignites the natural gas
  • The injection of both LNG and diesel fuel occurs relatively late in the combustion cycle, which allows for a much higher compression ratio than in a typical natural gas engine
  • Installation of the high-speed injectors to deliver the natural gas and diesel through separate outlets within the engine cylinder
  • Either disable or remove the engine's camshaft since the natural gas is under pressure
    • The result is a quieter running engine
issues in using lng
Issues in Using LNG


  • For LNG vehicles, technical barriers pertain more to vehicle fuel storage and refueling stations rather than with the engine
    • Insufficient fueling infrastructure and unreliable fueling stations
      • Better for local fleets that have their own supply of LNG
        • Currently about 30facilities—Cost is over $10 million
        • Small scale facility w/ access to pipeline—less $
issues in using lng58
Issues in Using LNG


  • The weight of the vehicle resulting from the extra components required on the engine as well as additional fuel tanks can be a barrier
    • Any increase in weight reduces load-carrying capacity
    • If extra fuel tanks are required, the space availability on the vehicle for the extra tanks can also be a barrier for long haul trucks
  • However, the Westport-Cummins fuel delivery system seems to have solved the load capacity issue for at least local trucks
what is biodiesel
What is Biodiesel?
  • Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning mono-alkyl ester-based oxygenated fuel made from soybean oil or other vegetable oils or animal fats
  • A renewable fuel domestically produced from agricultural resources, biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatic compounds
  • The concept of using vegetable oil-based fuel dates back to 1895 when Dr. Rudolf Diesel developed the first compression-ignition engine specifically to run on vegetable oil
what is biodiesel62
What is Biodiesel?
  • Because it has similar properties, biodiesel can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel and can be used in diesel engines with no major modifications
  • Biodiesel is registered as a fuel and fuel additive with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and meets clean diesel standards established by the California Air Resources Board (CARB)
  • Neat (100%) biodiesel has been designated as an alternative fuel by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Department of Transportation (DOT). Biodiesel contains no sulfur or aromatics and already meets the 2007 sulfur standards
biodiesel operates in conventional engines
Biodiesel Operates in Conventional Engines
  • Biodiesel maintains similar payload capacity and range of diesel
    • Engine performance can be less than that of diesel by 8% to 15%, because of the lower energy content of the biodiesel (121,000 Btu compared to 135,000 Btu for No. 2 diesel fuel
  • Pure biodiesel is not compatible with natural rubber, sometimes found in pre-1994 vehicles
  • Because it is a solvent, it can degrade natural rubber hoses and gaskets, so those would need to be changed to more modern material if B100 is used
    • Not a problem with B20 blends--20% biodiesel/80% diesel and below
  • Since biodiesel is oxygenated, diesel engines have more complete combustion with biodiesel than with petroleum
safety of biodiesel
Safety of Biodiesel
  • Biodiesel is safer to use than petroleum diesel or E diesel
  • The flash point for biodiesel in its pure form is more than 260 ° F versus about 125° F for regular No. 2 diesel.
    • This makes biodiesel the safest fuel to use, handle and store.
biodiesel exhaust
Biodiesel Exhaust
  • Biodiesel exhaust is less offensive than diesel exhaust
  • The use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends results in a noticeable, less offensive change in exhaust odor
    • Equipment operators have compared it to the smell of french fries.
  • Users also report having no eye irritation.
about 75 biodiesel retail outlets for b 100 b 20 fuel
About 75 Biodiesel Retail Outlets for B 100 & B 20 Fuel
  • Bosselman Travel Center -- 1944 North 9th; Interstate 70, Exit 252; Salina, KS 67401; (785) 825-6787; public B2 pump
hydrogen fuel cells
Hydrogen Fuel Cells?
  • Currently development of hydrogen fuel cells is only at the prototype stage
    • More development for busses in Europe and US
  • Some truck makers are working on fuel cells for APUs