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Chapter 14. Implementing and Maintaining the System. Learning Objectives. Understand the activities associated with the system implementation phase of the SDLC Understand the range of appropriate test procedures for a given application

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chapter 14

Chapter 14

Implementing and Maintaining the System

CCSB223/SAD/CHAPTER14

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Understand the activities associated with the system implementation phase of the SDLC
  • Understand the range of appropriate test procedures for a given application
  • Identify and select the most suitable conversion strategy for a new application

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learning objectives1
Learning Objectives
  • Understand the various types of user and system documentation
  • Understand the activities and constraints associated with the systems maintenance phase of the SDLC

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what is system implementation
What is System Implementation?
  • Activities that ensure the new system is fully functional and operational
  • Activities that turn over control of the new system to the end users

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system implementation
System Implementation
  • Application testing and user acceptance
  • User training and final documentation
  • System installation and conversion

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application testing
Application Testing
  • Testing categories
    • Code inspection
    • Structured walk-through
    • Desk check
    • Module testing

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code inspection
Code Inspection
  • Inspect the actual code for the occurrence of certain types of programming errors
  • Focus on errors that may not be syntactically or grammatically incorrect but may cause the logic of the code to fail

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slide9

Figure 14-1. Excerpt From a Formal Code Inspection Checklist for C++

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structured walkthrough
Structured Walkthrough
  • To test whether the code actually performs the functions intended by the designer
  • Close examination of the embedded logic in the code

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desk check
Desk Check
  • Focuses on the actual execution of the code
  • One or more programmers who are not responsible for the actual writing of the codes work through a hard copy of source code

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module testing
Module Testing
  • Also referred to as Unit Test
  • Focuses on ascertaining the successful execution of each application module prior to integrating it with other tested modules
  • One of the primary black-box testing methods
  • Test Driver is written to facilitate the test

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stub testing
Stub Testing
  • Top-down testing scenario
    • The highest-level control module is tested first
    • The lower-level modules are simulated by a program stub designed to simply accept control from a high-level module and return it back to that module

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integration testing
Integration Testing
  • Focus on testing the behavior of an entire group of modules to identify errors that either were not, or could not be detected at the unit level

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integration testing1
Integration Testing
  • Integration strategies
    • All at once (big-bang)
    • Top-down
    • Bottom-up
    • Critical piece first

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system testing
System Testing
  • Focus on the behavior of the entire system
  • The goal is to have no errors or anomalies remaining
  • Build-and-smoke test

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user acceptance test
User Acceptance Test
  • User verifies that the delivered and installed product is ready to be put into production use
  • Alpha Test (verification test)
    • Done by the client at the developer’s site
  • Beta Test (validation test)
    • Conducted by the end users at their own site

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user acceptance test1
User Acceptance Test
  • Script
    • Designed to verify that the major functions are properly operating in their most common mode
    • A testing script is hierarchically organized by subsystem and function

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installing the system
Installing the System
  • Tasks:
    • System conversion
    • Final documentation
    • End user training

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system conversion
System Conversion
  • Direct conversion
    • The old system is simply turned off, and the new system is turned on in its place
    • Should be considered only in extreme circumstances where no other conversion strategy is viable
    • Also referred to as slam dunk or cold-turkey strategy

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system conversion1
System Conversion
  • Parallel Conversion
    • The old and new systems are run simultaneously until the end users are fully satisfied that the new system is functioning correctly and the old system is no longer necessary

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system conversion2
System Conversion
  • Pilot Conversion
    • Allows for the conversion to the new system, using either direct or parallel method, at a single location

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system conversion3
System Conversion
  • Phased Conversion
    • Allows for the new system to be brought on-line as a series of functional components that are logically ordered so as to minimize disruption to the end users and the flow of business

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user documentation
User Documentation
  • To provide the end users with a detailed and highly organized description of how to interact with the system
  • On-line documentation (context-sensitive help)

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user documentation1
User Documentation
  • Topics and functions
    • Procedure
    • General reference
    • Tutorial

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system documentation
System Documentation
  • Describe the design specification, the internals of the system, the as-built program code, and the functionality of all modules
  • To assist and support personnel responsible for maintaining the final system

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user training and support
User Training and Support
  • User training design and content
    • One-size-fits-all training program is not a desirable structure for training
    • Users need to be trained on how to use the system to perform their respective jobs

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user training and support1
User Training and Support
  • User training methods and delivery
    • Traditional classroom
    • One-on-one training
    • Self-paced or computer-based training
    • Training schedule must be closely linked to the conversion strategy

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post implementation activities
Post-Implementation Activities
  • To correct errors or faults in the system
  • Provide changes to affect performance improvement
  • Adapt the system to changes in the operating environment

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system maintenance
System Maintenance
  • Change requests
    • Identifying and implementing changes to the system that add or enhance functionality
    • Change control steering committee

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system maintenance1
System Maintenance
  • Corrective Maintenance
    • Fix bugs and logical errors not detected during the implementation testing period
  • Adaptive Maintenance
    • Modifying existing functions or adding new functionality to accommodate changes in the operating environment

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system maintenance2
System Maintenance
  • Perfective Maintenance
    • Changes made to an existing system to improve the performance of a function or interface
  • Preventive Maintenance
    • Activities intended to reduce the chances of a system failure or extend the capacity of a current system’s useful life

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system maintenance3
System Maintenance
  • Preventive maintenance activities
    • Hardware maintenance to keep electromechanical equipment operating correctly
    • Replacement of hardware components to keep the equipment up to current specifications
    • Updating of system software
    • Testing and analysis of system reports
    • Maintenance of system documentation

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system maintenance4
System Maintenance
  • System Maintenance Costs
    • There is a direct link between the cost of absolute availability and the cost of downtime
    • Maintenance can account for a significant portion of the total IS budget

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system maintenance5
System Maintenance
  • Cost Estimation of Downtime
    • Productivity loss
      • Downtime that has a negative impact on individual or workgroup productivity
      • Productivity Loss = (# of Affected Users) x (Percentage Effect on Productivity / 100) x (Average Burdened Salary per Hour) x (Hours of Downtime)

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system maintenance6
System Maintenance
  • Cost Estimation of Downtime
    • Business loss
      • Downtime that affects transactions or result in customer losses
    • Business Loss =

(# of Affected Users) x (Percentage Effect on Productivity / 100) x (Average Profit per Employee Hour) x (Hours of Downtime)

    • Or

(# of Transactions per Hour) x (Percentage of Affected Transactions / 100) x (Average Profit per Transaction) x (Hours of Downtime)

- End -

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chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • When you first experience the world of SAD, the details of the methodology in place may differ from what you learned from this text.
  • The underlying concepts, principles, and objectives will most certainly be consistent with what you have learned, and you will be able to adapt easily to the new environment.

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chapter 141

Chapter 14

End of Chapter

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