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Genetics Vocabulary. Heredity Trait Allele Locus Characteristic Dominant Recessive. Group 1. In 1930s Heinrich Himmler of Nazi party decided to enact policy to increase numbers of “racially pure” citizens considered “Aryan” Blonde Blue eyes (green ok )

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genetics vocabulary

Genetics Vocabulary

Heredity

Trait

Allele

Locus

Characteristic

Dominant

Recessive

Group 1

slide3

In 1930s Heinrich Himmler of Nazi party decided to enact policy to increase numbers of “racially pure” citizens considered “Aryan”

    • Blonde
    • Blue eyes (green ok )
  • Since he understood principles of heredity, convinced blonde-haired, blue-eyed soldiers and women to breed more children, married or not
  • Entire organization called Lebensborn which means “fountain of life” in ancient German
lebensborn 1935 1945
Lebensborn 1935 - 1945

Special attention was paid to children born on Fuhrer’s birthday, October 7

slide7

Royal intermarriage was a common practice in Europe through the ages to keep pure royal bloodlines.

  • The Hapsburg lip is a trait that was found in the House of Hapsburg royal line in which the bottom lip protrudes as a result of an under bite.
  • Many royal portraits of the Hapsburgs shows this common trait that was passed down through the generations.
slide10

Feather color in certain chickens is a gene that is determined by two alleles, white and black.

  • If a chicken has two white alleles, it will be white. If a chicken has two black alleles, it will be black.
  • If a chicken has one white allele, one black allele, it will not be gray, but actually checkered with both black and white feathers!
slide13

Kidney gene locus

Cancer gene locus

  • Certain cancer genes on different chromosomes cause cancer to different organs depending on the locus of the gene
  • On chromosome 9, the cancer gene’s locus is near a locus for kidneys. As a result, there is a higher incidence of kidney cancer when those two loci are physically close.

Chromosome 9

slide16

Each President of the United States seems to have a physical quirk or characteristic that distinguishes him from the others.

  • Barack Obama’s quirky characteristic seems to be his big ears which are excellent fodder for comedians worldwide.
slide19

Current evolutionary theory holds that human beings evolved from primates in central Africa.

  • The first humans were dark-haired, dark-skinned, with dark-eyes.
  • Current genetic models show that all dark traits are dominant over lighter traits, since those lighter traits are a result of mutations.

Artist’s interpretation of

an early ancestor.

slide22

Tay Sachs disease is a recessive disease which means that a person has to have both Tay Sachs recessive alleles.

  • Many people in the Ashkenazi Jewish community are carriers.
  • When two parents who are carriers have children, each child has a 1 in 4 chance of getting the disease.
genetics vocabulary1

Genetics Vocabulary

Genotype

Phenotype

Homozygous

Heterozygous

Monohybrid

Dihybrid

Group 2

slide26

A

b

C

D

e

f

G

A

B

C

d

e

F

G

Genotype for eye color, Bb

  • The specific genetic makeup of an individual makes up its genotype.
  • If one could visually see a genotype, it might be represented by a series of letters, each one an allele, on the chromosomes.
  • If a gene for brown eyes is represented by the letter b, brown would be B since it is dominant. Therefore, blue would be b since it is recessive.
  • This explains how one can have a genotype Bb but still have brown eyes.

From Dad

From Mom

h

i

J

k

L

M

H

i

j

k

L

m

Chromosome 2

slide29

Being a carrier of an allele does not necessarily mean the individual expresses that trait.

    • If the trait is recessive, the carrier will NOT show the phenotype, as in blue eyes.
    • If the trait is dominant, the carrier WILL show the phenotype, as in a cleft chin.
  • Expression of the trait is the phenotype. It’s the observable trait that is seen with the eyes, or seen as a disease.
slide32

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a homozygous recessive genetic disorder.

  • It’s characterized by an inability to utilize the essential amino acid phenylalanine due to a malfunctioning enzyme that can’t break it down.
  • Without this enzyme, phenylalanine accumulates in the blood and body tissues.
  • Untreated, it can cause mental retardation and death.
  • For an individual to develop PKU they must be homozygous for that allele.
slide34

b

b

Bb

Bb

B

b

bb

bb

slide35

Polydactyly is a condition in which a person has more than five fingers per hand or five toes per foot.

  • The individual is heterozygous dominant for that genetic trait.
slide36

Anne Boleyn, was married to Henry VIII, the King of England in the 1500’s.

  • It was reported that she had an extra finger (polydactyly?) which she kept hidden.
  • When Henry wanted to marry another woman, he accused her of adultery with her own brother and also used the extra finger against her, saying that she was a witch.
  • She was beheaded by an expert swordsman with one swift stroke!
slide39

One of the most common hybrids in the animal kingdom is a mule.

  • A mule is a cross between a male donkey (a jack) and a female horse (a mare).
  • Mules are always sterile. Since donkeys have 62 chromosomes and horses have 64, mules have 63. This means they can’t produce gametes since ½ of 63 = 31.5!
genetics vocabulary2

Genetics Vocabulary

Law of segregation

Law of independent assortment

Punnett square

Probability

Pedigree

Group 3

slide43

How does an individual have blue eyes when both parents have brown eyes?

    • This is the result of the law of segregation.
    • Remember that the genotype for brown eyes can be BB or Bb.
    • For an individual to have blue eyes they had to receive the two bb alleles (one from each parent).
  • In order for this to happen it meant that during gamete formation (sperm or eggs), the B and b allele had to separate become different gametes.
  • During fertilization two gametes with b alleles would join producing an individual with blue eyes.
slide44

B

b

B

b

B

b

B

b

b

b

Mom

Dad

B

GAMETES

Blue Eyed zygote

law of independent assortment
Law of Independent Assortment
  • This is one of Mendel’s laws of heredity. He wanted to know whether the inheritance of one gene was influenced by the inheritance of a different character.
  • He conducted dihybrid crosses using 2 pairs of contrasting characters and found that alleles of different genes separate independently of one another during gamete formation.
  • We now know that this law only applies to genes that are located on different chromosomes or that are far apart on the same chromosome.
probability
Probability
  • Probability is a very interesting branch of mathematics because it is used to predict the likelihood of random events. It is a deductive science that studies uncertain quantities related to random events.
  • Gregor Mendel used the general rules of probability to explain the basic principles of heredity by breeding green peas in planned experiments. After hundreds of experiments he predicted that the outcome of any cross with pure bred plants would always result in a probability of 3 to 1 in the F2 generation.
slide52

Probability = Number of one kind of possible outcome

Total number of all possible outcomes

Example:

  • A coin tossed into the air will land on heads (one possible outcome). The total of all possible outcomes is two – heads or tails.

probability= 1

2

pedigree
Pedigree

The meaning of pie de grue literally comes from the “foot of the crane” as the pedigree diagram looks similar to the branches coming out of a crane's foot.

Many animals are bred for their pedigrees.

The Mastiff, one of the oldest dog breeds, can be seen in pictures dating back to 3000 BC.

The dogs were bred for their large size and strength.

The Romans used them as opponents against lions and gladiators.

The British used them to fight off predators on farms and as protectors of the home.

They are also bred for their gentle temperament and fierce loyalty.

genetics vocabulary3

Genetics Vocabulary

Sex-linked trait

Color blind

Hemophilia

Fragile X syndrome

Muscular dystrophy

Group 4

slide60

Most sex-linked traits are a result of a genetic defect of one or more genes located on the X chromosome.

    • Since females require two X chromosomes, one normal X will override the defected one. Those females are considered carriers.
    • Since males only have one X chromosomes, the inheritance of the defective X from their mothers results in them being affected with the trait.
slide62

The colors of the rainbow as viewed by a person with tritanopia.

  • Humans see light with the retina which is made up of rods and cones.
    • Rods gives us our night vision but can’t see color.
    • Cones are not useful at night but see color during daylight hours.
      • Three different types of cones , red, green, and blue, detect the wavelengths of all the hues of the rainbow.
      • Defects in these cones cause problems in detecting certain colors.

The colors of the rainbow as viewed by a person with protanopia.

The colors of the rainbow as viewed by a person with deuteranopia.

The colors of the rainbow as viewed by a person with no color vision deficiencies.

genetics vocabulary4

Genetics Vocabulary

Autosomal

Albinism

Cystic fibrosis

Tay Sachs

Phenylketoneuria

Huntington’s disease

Dwarfism

Neurofibromatosis

Group 5

genetics vocabulary5

Genetics Vocabulary

Incomplete dominance

Polygenic inheritance

Codominance

Group 6