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dora-castaneda

Genetics Vocabulary - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Genetics Vocabulary
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  1. Genetics Vocabulary

  2. A gene that is active in producing its RNA or protein product.

  3. expressed gene

  4. Genes that are turned off but are still present in a cell.

  5. repressed gene

  6. The basic building blocks of proteins.

  7. amino acids

  8. A molecule which during protein synthesis transmits the information in an organism’s DNA to the ribosome.

  9. messenger RNA

  10. Any change in the sequence of nucleotides in a strand of DNA

  11. mutation

  12. The process by which DNA is copied in a cell.

  13. replication

  14. The first phase of protein synthesis in which the information contained in DNA is converted into a messenger RNA.

  15. transcription

  16. The second phase of protein synthesis during which the code in the mRNA is read for the correct amino acid sequence in the protein.

  17. This reads the code in mRNA and then add amino acids in the correct sequence to form a protein.

  18. transfer RNA tRNA

  19. deoxyribonucleic acid

  20. DNA

  21. ribonucleic acid

  22. RNA

  23. A structure composed of DNA wrapped with proteins.

  24. chromosome

  25. A phenomenon during prophase in meiosis I where pairs of chromosomes exchange portions.

  26. crossing over

  27. Somatic cell which has pairs of chromosomes, or 2n

  28. diploid

  29. A gamete which contains one set of chromosomes or “n.”

  30. haploid

  31. A segment of an organisms genetic material (DNA) that produces a specific protein.

  32. gene

  33. A sexual reproductive cell such as a sperm or an egg cell.

  34. gamete

  35. An image of the chromosomal makeup of an individual, produced through staining, arranging matching pairs and photographing.

  36. karyotype

  37. Proposed by Mendel, states that it is equally likely for a heterozygous dihybrid individual to produce any of four type of gametes. e.g. PpSs could producePSPspSps

  38. Law of Independent Assortment

  39. The process of cell division that produces sex cells (gametes).

  40. meiosis

  41. The process of cell division that produces identical copies of cells.

  42. mitosis

  43. The failure of chromosomes to separate during cell division.

  44. nondisjunction

  45. body cells

  46. somatic cells

  47. The building blocks of DNA or RNA sugar + phosphate + nitrogen base

  48. nucleotide

  49. The four nitrogen bases found in DNA

  50. adeninethyminecytosineguanine