Purposes, ideologies, objectives and tools in ESP CALL Richard Watson Todd KMUTT http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/workshop.htm
Purposes in learning English ESP EGP GEd skills EAP EOP General Specific General Specific
Courses at Thai universities • EGP • Foundation English II • Exposure to significant structures of the English language as the basis of developing language abilities: listening, speaking, reading and writing through language skill integration with emphasis on communicative competence on a higher level.
Courses at Thai universities • EGP (skills) • Basic English Listening and Speaking • Frequently-used vocabulary/expressions in various settings and essential English listening and speaking skills: listening for the gist and details, proper engagement/participation in conversations and discussions, cultural difference awareness and sensitivity including systematic and creative communications in English.
Courses at Thai universities • EAP (general) • Academic English 1 • Practising academic English in the four language skills (listening, speaking reading and writing), emphasizing vocabulary development skills including academic expressions, reading and writing academic paragraphs, listening to and taking notes from lectures, and conducting project presentations.
Courses at Thai universities • EAP (specific) • English for Health Communication • A course to develop language skills through reading articles and research papers on topics connected to health as well as listening and speaking in English on health and work matters. The course also includes writing reports on health topics.
Courses at Thai universities • EOP (general) • Communicative English for Careers • Vocabulary and expressions used in many career areas. Memos, advertisements, telegrams, schedules, and other career documents.
Courses at Thai universities • EOP (specific) • English for Tourism • English for tourist guides: preparing itinerary and tourism publications; making reservations; discussion and presentation on geography, history and local culture; on-site practice.
Courses at Thai universities • GEd (through English) • Reading appreciation • Reading principles and techniques. Reading for comprehension and main idea. Critical reading. Various genres of texts and media: documentaries, autobiographies, speeches, short stories, poems and novels. Emphasis on development of reading appreciation and critical thinking skills.
EGP EGP (skills) EAP (general) EAP (specific) EOP (general) EOP (specific) GEd (through English) Most unis, 3 courses Many unis, 3-4 courses Some unis, 2 courses Few unis, 1 course/department Many unis, 2 courses Few unis, 1 course/department Very few unis, 1-2 courses Courses at Thai universities
Economic efficiency Learner-centredness Academic rationalism Social reconstructionism To serve the needs of the economy To enable individuals to develop their capabilities To increase knowledge and understanding for their own sake To develop society to be fairer Ideologies in education Miller et al., 1998; Richards, 2002
The ideological environment in Thailand • Thai educational policy makers emphasise Economic efficiency as the goal of education: • “Education is important to Thailand because quality education will produce a valuable workforce that could serve the demand in the globalised world and improve the country’s competitiveness ... The objective is to develop quality people so we will have knowledgeable workers for the globalised world. The country’s competitiveness will improve significantly and noticeably over the next 10 years. By then, we will be able to compete with any rivals in the region.” • Wijit Sisa-arn, Education Minister, 2007
The ideological environment in Thailand • National Education Act promotes Learner-centredness as the goal of education • Section 22, “The teaching-learning process shall aim at enabling the learners to develop themselves at their own pace and to the best of their potentiality” • Section 28, “The substance of the curricula, both academic and professional, shall aim at human development”
EGP, EAP, EOP GEd Primarily Economic efficiency, some Learner-centredness Academic rationalism University courses and ideologies
Objectives in teaching English • Discrete language points (lexis, grammar) • “significant structures of the English language as the basis of developing language abilities” • “Vocabulary and expressions used in many career areas” • Skills (and strategies) • “listening for the gist and details” • “listening to and taking notes from lectures” • Non-linguistic goals • “cultural difference awareness and sensitivity “ • “reading appreciation and critical thinking skills”
English Education at Thai Universities • Mostly EGP (Foundation English 1 etc.) • Some EAP and EOP (but often restricted to electives) • Ideology = Economic efficiency (preparing students for the market, in line with influential policy makers) • Skills and discrete language points are main objectives (very little focus on non-linguistic objectives)
The digital age • Effects of technology on language teaching • Effects on content • Language use with technology • Corpus findings (importance of phrases and collocations) • Effects on learning • Corpus findings linked to emergentist models of learning • TELL
The digital age TELU TELL CALL MALL MPALL CALU MALU Jarvis and Achilleos, 2013
CALL CALU (with incidental learning) CALL multimedia software/websites LMS Some CMC CMC Language tools (dictionaries, spell checkers) General websites Watson Todd, 2007
3 case studies • WELSIT • Specific EOP, skills, CALL, Economic efficiency • CEEM • Specific EAP, discrete language points, corpus-based, CALL, Learner centredness • Wikipedia writing • GEd, non-linguistic, CALU, Academic rationalism
WELSIT • Web-based English Language Support for the IT industry • Ideology = Economic efficiency + Learner centredness • Government funded project • Skills-based • Traditional CALL multimedia format • Some focus on language use with technology (writing e-mails) • http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/welsit/index.html
CEEM • Corpus-based Engineering English Materials • Ideology: Learner centredness • Based on a 1.5-million-word corpus from 29 engineering textbooks • Users choose words to study • Highlights phrases using words • http://crs2.kmutt.ac.th/ceem/ (Student – Phrase challenge)
Wikipedia writing • English course for advanced students focusing on creating or substantially expanding a Wikipedia page • Ideology = Academic rationalism • Mix of academic writing and general education objectives • Students choose the page, read extensively, write or expand the article, and upload • Sample pages: Thai ceramics, likay, saw duang
Summary of the situation • English courses at Thai universities • EGP dominates, some ESP • Ideology = Economic efficiency • Discrete language points and skills • Little digital impact • Supplementary or self-study ESP • Both EAP and EOP • Ideology = Learner centredness and Economic efficiency • Discrete language points and skills • CALL • General education through English • Very rare • Ideology = Academic rationalism • Non-linguistic objectives (critical thinking, synthesising info etc.) • CALU
The environment • National Education Act of 1999 • “Education” means the learning process for personal and social development through imparting of knowledge; practice; training; transmission of culture; enhancement of academic progress; building a body of knowledge by creating a learning environment and society with factors available conducive to continuous lifelong learning. (Section 4) • Education shall aim at the full development of the Thai people in all aspects: physical and mental health; intellect; knowledge; morality; integrity; and desirable way of life so as to be able to live in harmony with other people (Section 6)
Directions • General education through English meets the requirements of the NEA • Transferable skills • Curiosity • General knowledge • English courses and supplementary ESP currently dominating are useful, but there needs to be a greater emphasis on • General education through English • Academic rationalism • CALU • Non-linguistic objectives