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SS4115 Integrated Social Work Practice. Leung Suk Ching,Cathy 5056 4620 Chan Wai Ching, Amy 5055 4742 Cathy 5056 4620 朱茵 5055 7105 Fung Ki Ho, Ben 5055 2750 Chan Ka Lai, Hazel 5058 1627 Nokia 5056 3900 Kat 5055 7210 Cheung On Shing ,Richard 5049 4765. Outline.

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ss4115 integrated social work practice

SS4115 Integrated Social Work Practice

Leung Suk Ching,Cathy 5056 4620

Chan Wai Ching, Amy 5055 4742 Cathy 5056 4620朱茵 5055 7105 Fung Ki Ho, Ben 5055 2750 Chan Ka Lai, Hazel 5058 1627 Nokia 5056 3900Kat 5055 7210 Cheung On Shing ,Richard 5049 4765

  • Introduction of Integration
  • Rationale of Integration
  • Information about three service units
  • IFSC
  • Youth
    • Tai Po Youth Outreach team (大埔地區青少年外展社會工作隊)
    • 香港小童群益會 (The Boys’ & Girls’ Club Association of Hong Kong)
  • Elderly
    • Social Centre for Elderly (SE) in Lai King
    • Yuen Yuen home (elderly home)
division of labour
Division of Labour
  • We are divided into three groups for interviewing the SW in fields:
    • IFSC
    • Youth
    • Elderly
  • Evaluate the models in those organizations
    • Advantage and Disadvantage
    • Comment from SW
introduction of integration

Introduction of integration

Policy on integration

Rationale of integration

policy on integration 1
Policy on integration(1)
  • White paper –social Welfare into the 1990s and Beyond (1991.p.27)
  • The government plans that children and youth centres, outreach social work and school social work “be integrated” and operated on a neighbourhood basis so that young people in the same area may be served by the same team of worker
policy on integration 2
Policy on integration(2)
  • For example, Integration of Children and Youth Centre Services (1994, p.16)
  • Report on Review of CYS
    • “the working party concludes that children and youth centres should adopt a “holistic “ or “total-person’ approach in addressing the need s and problems of the youth population, by looking at a young person in his total life situation”
rationale 1 service fragmentation
Rationale 1: Service fragmentation
  • Distinct service boundaries and division of labour
  • Linkage and cooperation among different service were insufficient
  • Highly specialized in practice
rationale 2 service duplication
Rationale 2: Service duplication
  • In the past, the service cooperation was more focus on individual service unit level
  • Less cooperation and coordination among different services in the community
  • Waste and duplication of resources
    • Service duplication
    • Manpower duplications
rationale 3 service gap
Rationale 3: Service Gap
  • Complication and complexity of service needs
  • .The rigid service boundaries lead to the negligence of &unresponsiveness to the service needs
rationale 4 rigidity
Rationale 4: Rigidity
  • Manpower management
  • Resource allocation
  • Policy Manpower and resources of different services
  • Not easily and flexibly deployed among services units, so create waste
rationale 5 unresponsiveness
Rationale 5: Unresponsiveness
  • Unresponsive to community need
  • Centralized planning hindering service units from a quick respond to special & urgent community needs or crises
rationale 6 mobilize the development of services providers
Rationale 6: Mobilize the development of services providers
  • Under the effect of Plurality diversity(多元化), it result in more diversity to interpret the service needs Integration of different models
  • Introduce the concept of generalist “通才”and integrated practitioner (綜合實務工作者)
  • Introduce more humanistic element , e.g. user participation
example of service unit 1

Example of Service Unit (1)

Integrated Family Service Centre (IFSC)

the models of ifsc 1
The models of IFSC (1)

Method-oriented integration

  • Case, group and community work

For example, 3levels of providing services:

  • Family Counseling (FC): counseling service, case
  • Family Support(FS):support service, holding groups
  • Family Resource (FR): provide resource, promote the service to community such as mobile counter and care hotline
the models of ifsc 2
The models of IFSC (2)

Profession-oriented integration

  • Different professions join together

For example, in our centre

  • Elderly CR case: social work & doctordo health assessment
  • Suspected mental problem: social work & clinical psychologist (CP)  do metal health assessment to the client
the models of ifsc 3
The models of IFSC (3)

Agency-oriented integration

  • Different agencies join and work together

For example, in our centre

  • 1. Community talk (防騙防盜): our centre & police
  • 2. Parenting talk (parent in school): school & our centre
the advantages of integration
The advantages of integration
  • Family resource (FR): develop volunteer service

develop service in community and do some prevention

  • Concept: early identification

 do immediately intervention if anything has been happened in the community

  • Efficiency: divide into 3 levels of integration in family setting

 Clear structure

the disadvantages of integration
The disadvantages of integration
  • No specific service / centre provided: New arrival and single parent
  • ‘integrated’ worker: adaptation of FSC worker

 Can the worker integrate their knowledge and skills in case, group and community work

difficulties in implementing integrated practice
Difficulties in implementing integrated practice
  • Manpower: do not have enough manpower to provide services in IFSC
  • Agency argument: handle one caseNGOs & SWD shirk responsibility no agency handle this case
how to solve the difficulties
How to solve the difficulties
  • Staff training: provide different trainings
  • such as skills and knowledge to the staff
  • Staff meeting: share concern and difficulty

 discuss the issue and give advices among the workers

interesting sharing 1
Interesting sharing (1)
  • Workload in IFSC: heavy workload

Ex. Manpower management, community development

  • Social pressure for social worker:
  • shirk responsibility (atmosphere)
  • Client complaint ↑
interesting sharing 2
Interesting sharing (2)
  • Relationship between SWD and NGOs:
  • past: partnership, now: donator (SWD) and receiver (NGOs)
  • Change of case nature: tangible cases↑, counseling cases↓, long-term cases X
models of integration
Models of Integration

1) Service/ Worker – oriented Integration

2) Profession – oriented Integration

3) Method – oriented Integration

4) Agency-oriented integration

5) Locality-oriented integration

service worker oriented integration
Service/ Worker – oriented Integration
  • Different workers join together:

- School worker & Outreach worker

- School worker has to work with social welfare worker as they would provide some group work to school

  • Different service units join together:

- Ng Yuk Secondary School & Tai Po Youth outreach team

- Hong Kong Children & Youth Services: Jockey Club Heng On Integrated Children & Youth Services Centre & KCRC (九廣鐵路公司)

con t

- Hong Kong Children & Youth Services: Jockey Club Heng On Integrated Children & Youth Services Centre & Scout Association of Hong Kong

- Hong Kong Children & Youth Services: Jockey Club Heng On Integrated Children & Youth Services Centre & Government (Youth Pre-employment training program)

  • Ng Yuk Secondary School (五育中學) would work with Tai Po Youth Outreach team (大埔地區青少年外展社會工作隊) as sometimes the outreach team would have contact with the students who study in Ng Yuk, therefore, the outreach worker would come to school and organize group work and then refer case to school worker.
profession oriented integration
Profession – oriented Integration
  • Different professionals join together

- Social worker & Teachers

- Social worker & Polices (反黑組)

- Social worker & Psychiatrist

- Social worker & Adventurer (歷奇導師)

- Social worker & therapists

- Social worker & Psychologist

- Social worker & University professor

method oriented integration
Method – oriented Integration
  • Different methods deal with clients’ problems

- Case

- Group

- Community work

- Therapeutic group

- Interest Class

- Volunteerism

agency oriented integration
Agency-oriented integration
  • Youth work agency + limited company

- e.g. 香港小童群益會 (The Boys’ & Girls’ Club Association of Hong Kong) + 香港聯合利華有限公司

  • Youth work agency + hospital

- e.g. 香港小童群益會 (The Boys’ & Girls’ Club Association of Hong Kong) + 明愛醫院兒童及青少年科

  • Youth work agency + Media Communication Unit

- e.g. 香港小童群益會 (The Boys’ & Girls’ Club Association of Hong Kong) + RTHK Corporate Communications Unit

  • A project call ‘聯合利華豐盛童盟計劃’ is a co-work by 香港聯合利華有限公司 and 香港小童群益會 (The Boys’ & Girls’ Club Association of Hong Kong)
  • it aims at providing developmental activities for the minorities
locality oriented integration
Locality-oriented integration
  • Youth work agencies work together within Tai Wai

- Hotlines for HKCEE

e.g. Hong Kong Children & Youth Services: Lung Hung Centre (隆亨中心)& Tsung Tsin Mission of Hong Kong (崇真會)

advantages of integration
Advantages of Integration

1)Understand the needs and problems of client more comprehensive

  • E.g. Student A has behavioral problem in school and also played in the street at night. School social worker can communicate with Out – reach worker to discuss the case of student A.. Both of them can know more the detail of A and has a better intervention to A.

2) More chances for co-work that resources can be utilized

  • E.g. Outreach worker may have group work in school that they help to provide direct service to students instead of asking school worker to run the group as his workload maybe too heavy. Then when there is a need for case work, outreach worker can refer student to school worker.
advantages of integration1
Advantages of Integration

3) Use different perspectives to see the clients  understand more

  • E.g. Teachers more concentrate on students’ academic and worker more concentrate on student’s feelings. They can share their opinion and help the student in a full extent.

4) More comprehensive services for tackling their needs

  • E.g. Student has social problem who can receive a counseling in case and also increase their social network and learn social skills through group and community work.
disadvantages of integration
Disadvantages of Integration
  • Conflicts
  • Different professionals have their own perspectives and tend to insist on their standpoints which is different from social worker, therefore, conflicts easily arise

- E.g. teachers tend to punish students and stop their behaviors as fast as possible while social work take a person-centered approach that focus on their needs rather than their superficial problems

  • With different standpoints, people are less likely to compromise a solution or it takes time to make a consensus.

- E.g. Outreach workers concern more on clients’ needs while school social worker have to balance between 2 parties (school and clients)

disadvantages of integration1
Disadvantages of Integration

2) Lack of Manpower

  • worker needs to do more works (case/ group/ community work)
  • Workload increased

3) Compete for limited resources

  • Due to lump-sum grant, workers in the same centre has to compete for limited funding that sometimes focus on quantity rather than quality so that they can meet the requirement.
difficulties in implementing integrated practice1
Difficulties in Implementing Integrated Practice

1) Really Increase the communication between other parities?

  • Not necessary
  • Although they are under the same centre, all worker have their own job
  • Not much communication time

2) Enough training?

  • Workload Increase since worker need to do more (case, group, community work)
  • Gov. do not have enough training for worker
  • Increase the pressure on them
how to face solve the difficulties
How to face/ solve the difficulties
  • Clarify one’s role and standpoints

- E.g. School worker has to set a baseline and stay firm when working with outreach worker: to clarify with them that she has to consider both benefit of school and clients instead of only concerning the clients

  • Do not have frequent contact so that conflicts will be reduced
  • Positive
  • People with similar belief can support each other
  • Complementary to each other
  • Provide variety service to clients
  • More options for clients to choose
  • Negative
  • Heavy Workload
  • Resources overlap
  • Quantitative instead of qualitative that neglect clients’ need or minority’s need
example of service unit 3

Example of Service Unit (3)

Elderly Service Integrations

-Multi-level Intervention

-Horizontal Intervention

multi level intervention
Multi-level Intervention

-provides diversified services to the elderly→ cater to elderly different needs

-can be divided into preventive& remedial work

con t1
  • Preventive work:
  • Methods: community work
  • Target: people in the community
  • Activities: A series of Educational Activities & Health Talks e.g. the sources of stress, how to relieve stress, how to be a happy elderly…etc.

→bring out the optimistic and positive message

Remedial Work:
  • Methods: Case and Group
  • Target: Elderly
  • Activities:

A. group activities→

1. provide emotional support through group counseling

2. Relieve elderly stress & depression

B. Case→

  • Provide emotional support through individual counseling
  • Relieve Elderly Stress & depression
horizontal integration
Horizontal Integration
  • Different services units serve the same kind of clients
  • Same clients but could have different needs
  • Require cooperation or collaboration among different units

→ provides holistic & suitable services to elderly

→ produce interdependence (互相依賴) & symbiosis (共生) relationship between various units

con t2
  • Advantages of Models integration:
  • Cater to elderly different needs
  • Diversified services→ e.g. educational activities, health talks→ promote the importance of mental health in the elderly
  • Case & groups→ relieve elderly stress+ provide emotional support to them
Reduce the Stigma effects(標籤效應)
  • Chinese tradition: elderly see “Mental health” doctors= have mental problems

→elderly stress ↑

  • Groups/ different activities →mutual sharing among elderly → Stigma effects of elderly referral to the mental health ↓+ elderly stress ↓
Enhance service quality & efficiency
  • Focus on the basis of human(以人為本)
  • Get different services in one unit→ service quality + efficiency ↑
-Disadvantages of models integration
  • High demand on social workers

-demand social workers have professional & different aspects of knowledge→ stress of social worker↑

Lack of manpower → service quality + efficiency ↓
  • Provide diversified services, but manpower not change → stress of social worker ↑
  • Diversified services demand ≠ manpower

→service quality + efficiency ↓

elderly centres

Elderly Centres

Social Centre for Elderly (SE) in Lai King

Yuen Yuen home (elderly home)

social centre for elderly se in lai king
Social Centre for Elderly (SE) in Lai King
  • Cooperate with SE in Luk Yeung(綠楊)
  • E.g. Training program for volunteers
  • Ads: More flexibility of ideas and sharing of experience
  • Difficulty: Different expectation  different elderly have different needs
  • Elderly in Luk Yeung are richer, but the Elderly in Lai King are poor
  • Solution: built up a trustful relationship and try to compromise
Cooperate with Lawyer E.g. will(平安紙), Insurance agents (programme such as financial planning), Nurse, Occupational therapist
  • Ads: giving more information to elderly
  • Enhance the competitiveness of the centre for various professional consultation Difficulty: Boundary of professional role and coordination”協調不同取向及專業時有難度”
  • Solution: Clear expectation and needs
  • e.g. agreement with insurance agents for no hard sale in the centre
Secondary, Clinic, College cooperate to launch programme
  • E.g. Motivate the learning needs of elderly
  • Ads: decrease the workload of workers
  • optimal use of resource for sharing, modeling from other institution for administration and operational management
  • Disads: no existence of any reference model
  • Due to the limited resource and manpower, it is difficult to handle any special or urgent need
  • Solution: referral to resources within network, e.g. NECC
  • compromised of involved organizations
Cooperate with District Council, which directing the topic in the territory, for example, the elderly abuse problem will be follow by DECC or district council office
  • Under the progressive level , the problem is referred to DECC  NEC  SE
  • Ads: optimal use of resources, more effective and efficient
summary of the difficulties of integration
Summary of the difficulties of Integration
  • insufficient supporting of “ one-stop service”
  • SE is mainly responsible for the referral case, but it found difficulty to meet the demand as the limitation of resource and power
  • Not a regional leader
  • Lack of leading role
  • Passively running the programme
  • Interest conflict in DECC:
    • low transparency to public: the no. of sponsor??
    • Inequality to enroll the activity
    • In the jointed activity of SE/NEC and DECC , DECC is in first priority to entry
  • Administration problem
    • Cooperation and coordiantion
comments from sw
Comments from SW

- Social workers as resources in SE

  • Worker doubted the professional role of social workers in SE, because:
  • 1. Social workers in SE are doing well in networking, professional in liaison, co-operating and holding programmes, but lack of direct service provided by social workers
  • 2. Even they hold groups or programmes, they are mainly in the nature of education; for cases, the part of remedial part is done more, follow-up can be done too, but again, not much direct services provided
  • In opposite, social workers in DECC and NEC can provide more services in the nature lacked that are mentioned above
  • Therefore, it’s not healthy for SE to run in that way, services are mainly education, social work element is lacked
  • .
con t3
  • The functions of SE
  • Ads.: Good division of labour and specialization
  • Difficulty: SE is difficult to be NEC, because of the problems of bidding funding and supporting boundary
  • Possible solution: To take up sole responsibility for its profits or losses. Because under the subsidy and management of SWD, the running of the centre and its rationale is difficult to implement
yuen yuen home elderly home
Yuen Yuen home (elderly home)
  • Agency –oriented integration
  • E.g. work with two Children & Adult home and one elderly centre on fundraising night party (慈善中秋耀圓玄)
  • Advantage:
  • -understand different working style in the various working areas
  • -share the proposal in order to reduce the workload of the workers
  • -increase the information exchange and flexibility
work with different agency such as commercial company and educational institutions
  • E.g. work with different commercial company
    • Flag day , “義賣愛心券”
    • Improvement on quality of living e.g. 電力改善工程
  • Work with school such as home visit service
  • Work with Social Welfare Department such as “老有所為”& “全家網中人”
  • Build up a good social network in the community
  • Promote the service/service unit to the community
  • Information exchange
  • Well use of community resource
Work with community issue
  • e.g. 服務協調會議 (社會服務署召開的,一年三至4次) invite the agency head to discuss the community issue such as 沙士
  • DECC ~discuss the issue with the different service in the same community
  • disadvantage
  • Spend lots of time and manpower on cooperation with the other service units
Profession-oriented integration
  • E.g. Doctor, nurse, physiatrist, hospital (elderly &psychiatric ) and Elderly Health Outreach Program ( Department of Health)
  • advantage
  • convenience to the elderly
  • increase of communication with the other professional can be better for the health care to the elders
Method-oriented integration
  • No special focus or limitation
  • depend on the needs of the client
  • e.g. case work
  • To deal with a negative thinking elder CBT + Behavioral therapy ~ to change his mindset and create new behavior at the same time
  • More flexible
  • Synergy effect


  • Not specific to the service need
  • Difficult to evaluate the program
  • 編輯聖公會麥理浩夫人中心《社耕拾穗》編輯小組,《社耕拾穗(2)-以社區為本, 綜合模式為主的社區服務》。香港 : 聖公會麥理浩夫人中心, 1999
  • 實踐綜合家庭服務的經驗分享. 2005-2006. 香港社會服務聯會
  • 社聯季刊,《 服務整合》,香港社會服務聯會,二零零二年春季