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  1. THE IMPORTANCE of TRAINING & CERTIFICATION IN TERMS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCYDrKadir iSA, Member ASHRAEİstanbul University - TR UNEP OzonAction eGroup webinar «Training and Certification Schemes for Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technicians» in collaboration with Centro Studi Galileo, March 19, 2013

  2. IN TURKEY? Having an educated and well-trained labour force emerges as a key factor for remaining competitive in the global economy. Although significant improvements have taken place, Turkey’s population is characterised by low levels of human capital (as measured by formal schooling). Although development plans drafted in the 1970s and beyond placed the emphasis on vocational skills, and envisioned a share of 65% for the vocational and technical component of the secondary school system, this target has not been reached yet.

  3. IN TURKEY? As of 2009, only one out of three students enrolled in secondary schools was receiving vocational education. By matching pre-market skills with the needs of the labour market, vocational school education is expected to help the graduates ease their way into the labour market. Statistics reveal that this is not happening – a significant majority continues with higher education.

  4. Energy Efficient and Sustainable FUTURE Significant New Trends in the RACIndustry as We Seek toResolve the Issues of Increasing Energy Demand, Decreasing Supply and Environmental Impact.

  5. BUILDINGS MEAN 17% of fresh water consumption 39% of CO2 emissions 30% of waste generation 40% of energy use 55% of natural gas use 72% of electrical energy use

  6. We Expect - Highly Insulated Building Envelope - Optimized use of Day lighting - Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems with Demand Control - Expanded use of Heat Pumps - High Performance Packaged DX Systems - On Going Commissioning, Operation and Maintenance

  7. Commissioning, Operation and Maintenance

  8. Properly Maintained Systems The RACindustry is a HUGEindustry and consumes more energy than any other sector with the exception of transportation.  When people discuss energy efficiency, going green, saving money, the answer to all of these statements is properly sized, properly installed, and properly maintained RACequipment. 

  9. SKILLS CHANGE We certainly need to know more abouthow jobs are changing and tasks are developing, whatknowledge, skills andcompetences people really have in RAC tradeapart from their specific formal qualificationand which skill mix they need to develop. We also need to have a clearer ideaof how supply and demand match. This information is crucial to understand ifthere is a risk of skill mismatches and overskillingin RAC trade.

  10. Changing Demand for Skills Changes in the demand for skills and occupations are widely thought to be part of the main consequencesof greening the economy. The following broad impacts can be identified: Some skills will become obsolete due to structural changes in the labour market and employmentshifts, both within and across sectors, due to demands for a greener economy.

  11. Changing Demand for Skills Demands for some new skills will be created as new ‘green-collar’ occupations emerge to supportadaptation to and mitigation of climate change. The skills required for existing jobs will have a stronger green element as existing occupationalprofiles change. Green Collar: Helpingto protect ecosystems and biodiversity; reduce energy, materials, and water consumption through high efficiency strategies; de-carbonize the economy; and minimize or alltogether avoid generation of all forms of waste and pollution.

  12. GREEN CHALLENGE Developing a low-carbon, resource-efficient and competitive economy will firstly require a general up-skillingof the (potential) workforce. This will require substantial investment in efficienteducation andtraining. The green challenge offers an excellent opportunity toimplement a policy that isindispensable by all means: a good basic education provides the best foundation for developing one's skills throughout life.

  13. GREEN CHALLENGE In many cases, topping-up available skills with some specific, green-oriented skills will be sufficient toallow for the transition to a greener job. Apart from the necessary adaptation of training courses in thecontext of active labour market policies, this calls for adequate life-long learning and on-the-job trainingsystems.

  14. GREEN CHALLENGE This type of learning is the responsibility of workers, employers and authorities alike, and callsfor systems allowing for financing of training, possibly using some kind of career trainingaccounts. They should guarantee that the necessary up-skilling remains affordable and practicable. Inaddition, more emphasis is needed on training the trainers and enabling trainers and teachers to teachrelevantnew “green” techniques.

  15. Training First Most developed countries require training, apprenticeship and continuing education for someone to work in the RAC industry.  The RAC industry in some countriesis viewed as a profession not just a trade. To maintain standard of living without paying too much for power or thermal comfort, we must change the mindset of building occupants and the people working on them.

  16. Training First Proper education of technicians, teach energy auditing and management, emphasize operation and maintenance, teach students to install and service equipment to manufacturers specifications.  It all comes down to proper technician training and assessment!

  17. Demonstrate Achievement For the student, assessment can provide… • portfolio information for employment • connections to industry certifications

  18. Provide Accountability For the trade and government, assessments can provide… • common data for countrywide economic development plans • the mechanism for countrywide articulations • a component for awarding school/training center incentives

  19. References Gordon V.R. Holness P.E., ASHRAE, 2011 National HVACR Education & Trainers Conference. Skills Supply and Demand in Europe, Medium-Term Forecast Up to 2020, European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2010. Towards a Greener Labour Market –The Employment Dimension of Tackling Environmental Challenges, Final report endorsed by EMCO, November 10, 2010. Kadir Isa, Ismail Ekmekci, H. Riza Güven, Expectations in Vocational and Technical Education in Turkey, Edu-World Conference, Romania, May 2004.

  20. Contact Dr Kadir iSA Istanbul University Faculty of Engineering Mechanical Engineering Department Avcilar Campus, 34320 Istanbul – TR T: +90 212 473 7070 / 17837 F: +90 212 473 7081 E: