Unit 7: Nationalism Around the World Global Studies II Chapter 25 Mrs. Browne
Modernization of Turkey • Background Information: • The Ottoman Empire had been part of the Central Powersduring World War I • During World War I, the Allies tried to get all the different groups who lived under Ottoman rule to revolt. • Mustafa Kemal gained power and popularity during WWI in the military Colonel Mustafa Kemal
Modernization of Turkey • The Turkish Republic • The republic was created in 1923 when the Ottoman sultans fled the country. • Mustafa Kemal becomes President of Turkey • Kemal is also known as Ataturk or ‘Father Turk” • Kemal’s goal is to turn Turkey into a modern state!
Modernization of Turkey • Political & Economic Reforms • a democratic & secular state was created • Factories established • Modernized farming • New laws for women (marriage) & the right to vote granted to women in 1934 • Right to convert in religion guaranteed
Modernization of Turkey • Cultural Reforms • Turkish language now uses Roman alphabet • Public education introduced • Use of family last names (surnames) • The fez was forbidden for men • The veil wasforbidden for women • Separation of church & state
Modernization of Turkey • Results of Reform: • Ataturk’s reforms last… even though some groups in society objected to the changes (religion)
Essential Question #1 • Describe , in detail, at least 3 changes that Ataturk made in an effort to modernize Turkey.
The Beginnings of Modern Iran:The Qajar Dynasty 1794 - 1925 • Persian royal visit to England in 1902 ~ King Edward VII and Princess of Wales, Victoria
The Pahlavi Dynasty of Iran 1925 - 1979 • 1925 Reza Khan is proclaimed the new leader • a former military leader • used British help to overthrow the Qajar dynasty (why would British help??) • wanted to modernize Iran • Introduced western education • Forbade the veil • Modernized the government & economy to be more efficient • Trans-Iranian RR was built
The Pahlavi Dynasty of Iran 1925 - 1979 • 1941 Mohammed Reza Shah replaces his father as leader • ruled Iran until 1979 • Married 3 times • had to deal with economic problems, food shortages and concerns over modernization
The Pahlavi Dynasty of Iran 1925 - 1979 • Caught in between the US & the USSR during the Cold War (1945 – 1991) • By the 1960’s a strong US ally • Became less of a constitutional monarch (as promised) and more of a dictator as time went on manipulation, fear, secret police…
The Rise of Arab Nationalism At the end of WWI, the decision by the Allied Powers to keep the Middle East region under their control was considered unjust by most Arabs. They had expected full independence after the fall of the Ottoman empire.
The Rise of Arab Nationalism • Betrayal at the Paris Peace Conference • After WWI, colonies in the Arab world were promised independence. • Instead they became mandatesor territories that were “administered” by the European nations. • Syria and Lebanon were now controlled by France. • Palestine, Jordan and Iraq were controlled by Great Britain. • Promises in Palestine • Since being expelled by the Romans, the Jews had dreamed of returning to Palestine. • Theodore Herzl created a movement called Zionism which called for the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. • In Palestine, the nationalism of Jews and Arab Muslims came to a head because both groups view the area as their own.
The Rise of Arab Nationalism • Things became complicated after WWI when the British issued the Balfour Declaration. • The document expressed support for a national home for Jews in Palestine. • The declaration drew many Jews into the area and as a result violence flared between Jewish and Muslim inhabitants!
Creation of Palestine in 1922 British Mandate in PalestineCreatedJuly, 1922
The Holy & Disputed Land • In 1920, there was 1 Jew to every 10 Arabs in Palestine(1:10). • By 1947, the ratio was 1 Jew to every 2 Arabs (1:2). The Arabs felt that they were loosing control of their “country!”
Arab Nationalism The 1947 creation of the present day nation of Israel is considered the success of the Zionist dream. Muslim Arabs known as Palestinians also claim this area as their homeland; it is a legitimate claim as well.
Essential Question #2 • What was the Balfour Declaration and why would it lead to bloodshed in the future that has continued to present day?
India Seeks Self Rule India was still a colony of Britain after WWI. Britain had taken direct control of India after the Sepoy Rebellion in 1857. In 1885, Indians formed the Indian National Congress to work for independence!!
India Seeks Self-Rule • Mohandas Gandhi becomes the leader of the independence movement in India. • his methods are based on civil disobedience which is the refusal to obey laws considered unjust.
India Seeks Self-Rule • The Amristar Massacre of 1919 Video Questions: How does this event help solidify support for India’s independence? Were the British justified in their actions toward the Indian colonists?
India Seeks Self-Rule • In 1935, Britain passes the Government of India Act • Expands the role of Indians in the government • 5 million Indians are given the right to vote • In Parliament, 2/3rdsof the Indian representatives were to be elected now
India Seeks Self-Rule • BUT, Reforms are NOT enough anymore!!! • Gandhi and his followers continue the policy of civil disobedience
India Seeks Self-Rule • Gandhi encourages Indians to • NOT pay taxes • NOT send their children to British schools • NOT buy English made goods especially cotton clothand salt
India Seeks Self-Rule • The independence movement did have problems though… • Jawaharlal Nehru joins the movement • Nehru’s followers want to be modern, Western & secular
India Seeks Self-Rule • Hindu - Muslim Conflict
India Seeks Self-Rule • Islam is the 2nd most practiced religion in India! • Hindu and Muslim conflict in India becomes a significant issue (and still is!) • Muslims want a separate state to be created
This area becomes Pakistan … after India gains its independence in 1947!
Essential Question #3 • Who was Mohandas Gandhi and what actions did he take to help free India from British rule? Be descriptive!!
A Militaristic Japan • Background: • Japan had modernized during the MEIJI RESTORATION of the mid 1800’s. • They were modern and industrialized • The military was modernized • Education was expanded for all • Land reforms enacted • Business was promoted
A Militaristic Japan • Economics • The Zaibatsu gain power through $ donations to political leaders • The Great Depression of the 1930’s results in • Decreased trade (exports dropped) • Increased unemployment • Increased poverty & starvation
A Militaristic Japan • The people turn to the military to help solve problems • Why? • The military inspired pride & prestige in Japan • The military was seen as able to change the way Japan was treated internationally through domination & strength
A Militaristic Japan • Society • Ultra-Nationalism takes hold in Japan • Democracy and socialism are removed from society • Policies of expansion are pursued • The Role of the Emperor changes • The emperor becomes a figurehead as more power transitions to the military leaders • A cult is promoted around the emperor • Schools promote obedience and service to the emperor
A Militaristic Japan • Japan and China • Historic enemies • Japan begins to increase pressure and demands upon China to gain control • 1915: Japan issues the 21 Demands to make China a Japanese protectorate; this is rejected. • 1919: Japan is given control of German possessions in China by the Treaty of Versailles
A Militaristic Japan • Japan begins to increase pressure and demands upon China to gain control (cont’d) • 1931: Japanese military officers stage an event in Manchuria (part of China) to give Japan a reason to invade. Japan then seizes Manchuria and sets up a puppet state. • 1937: Japan invades mainland China • 1939:Japan is at war with China & World War II begins [with Japan allied with Germany & Italy]
A Militaristic Japan • So…. At first, zaibatsu (powerful companies) influenced politics, but during the 1930’s the government is taken over by the military so that Japan can get raw materials and territory and create an empire. Japanese military forces nationalism/cult/etc.. on the people, and forces the people to get back to traditional or “ancient warrior” values.
A Militaristic Japan • What are the results of going back to these values ?? • Fascism • Obedience • Aggression
A Militaristic Japan: Final Thought • Why were the Japanese willing to follow military leaders from a democratic government based in a constitution to a military dictatorship? • Power • Economic prosperity (raw materials & territory) • To denounce racist theories that Asians were inferior to Europeans