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  1. An Assessment of Contributions of Operations Management to Academia and Practice in Turkey EUROMA 2007, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey • Prof. Dr. Gündüz Ulusoy • Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences • Sabancı University, Istanbul • Director, TÜSİAD-Sabancı University • Competitiveness Forum Gündüz Ulusoy

  2. CONTENTS • TURKEY:A BRIEF INTRODUCTION • COMPETITIVENESS PROFILE OF TURKEY • SOME OBSERVATIONS CONCERNING MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN TURKEY • AN ASSESSMENT OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT IN TURKEY • CONCLUSIONS Gündüz Ulusoy

  3. TURKEY: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION

  4. SOME ECONOMIC INDICATORS Gündüz Ulusoy

  5. DISTRIBUTION OF GDP AMONG SECTORS Gündüz Ulusoy

  6. DEMOGRAPHICS Gündüz Ulusoy

  7. EDUCATION * Total number of students enrolled in universities: 1.247.404 (2004) In Open University: 695.591 (2004) *Ultav, Panel Presentationat the National Innovation Initiative Meeting, Ankara, October, 2006 Gündüz Ulusoy

  8. EDUCATION Percentage of Degrees Awarded in Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Engineering in Total * * *Ultav, Panel Presentation at the National Innovation Initiative Meeting, Ankara, October, 2006 Gündüz Ulusoy

  9. R&D AND INNOVATION: INPUT & OUTPUT

  10. FTE R&D PERSONNEL AND RESEARCHERS Gündüz Ulusoy

  11. FTE R&D PERSONNEL/RESEARCHERS Gündüz Ulusoy

  12. R&D INTENSITY Gündüz Ulusoy

  13. NUMBER OF JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS (SCI, SSCI, A&H) Gündüz Ulusoy

  14. RANK OF TURKEY IN THE NUMBER OF PUBLICATIONS (SCI, SSCI, A&H) Gündüz Ulusoy

  15. APPLICATIONS AND REGISTRATION FOR UTILITY MODELS Gündüz Ulusoy

  16. PATENT APPLICATIONS Gündüz Ulusoy

  17. FOREIGN TRADE

  18. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS Ave Annual Increase in Exports er=%20,6 Ave Annual Increase in Imports ir=%16,8 Gündüz Ulusoy

  19. TOP 10 EXPORT DESTINATIONS (2005) Gündüz Ulusoy

  20. TOP 10 IMPORT SOURCE COUNTRIES (2005) Gündüz Ulusoy

  21. DYNAMIC TRADE PERFORMANCE OF TURKEY (2-digit SITC) Underachievers Champions Losers in decliningmarkets Achievers in adversity *Öz, Foreign Trade As An Economic Driver, The Global Competitiveness Report Turkey 2006, REF, Istanbul, November 2006 Gündüz Ulusoy

  22. CHAMPIONS IN 2000-2005 PERIOD *Öz, Foreign Trade As An Economic Driver, The Global Competitiveness Report Turkey 2006, REF, Istanbul, November 2006 Gündüz Ulusoy

  23. ACHIEVERS IN ADVERSITY IN2000-2005 PERIOD *Öz, Foreign Trade As An Economic Driver, The Global Competitiveness Report Turkey 2006, REF, Istanbul, November 2006 Gündüz Ulusoy

  24. CHANGES IN THE EXPORT MIX* *Ultav, Panel Presentation at the National Innovation Initiative Meeting, Ankara, October, 2006 Gündüz Ulusoy

  25. EU MARKET SHARE OF TURKISH COMPANIES IN CONSUMER ELECTRONICS* *Ultav, Panel Presentation at the National Innovation Initiative Meeting, Ankara, October, 2006 Gündüz Ulusoy

  26. COMPETITIVENESS PROFILE OF TURKEY

  27. PILLARS OF COMPETITIVENESS* Key forfactor-driven economies • Institutions•Infrastructure•Macroeconomy•Health and Primary Education BASIC REQUIREMENTS Key forefficiency-driven economies • Higher Education and Training•Market Efficiency (goods, labour, financial)•Technological Readiness EFFICIENCY ENHANCERS Key forinnovation-driven economies • Business Sophistication•Innovation INNOVATION & SOPHISTICATIONS FACTORS *The Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007, World Competitiveness Forum, Geneva, 2006. Gündüz Ulusoy

  28. GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS INDEX RANKING Gündüz Ulusoy

  29. LIST OF COUNTRIES IN EACH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT* *The Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007, World Competitiveness Forum, Geneva, 2006. Gündüz Ulusoy

  30. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GDP PER CAPITA ($) (PPP) AND GCI SCORE Gündüz Ulusoy

  31. TURKEY IN RELATION TO EU 25 *Öz, The Investment Environment, The Global Competitiveness Report Turkey 2006, REF, Istanbul, November 2006 Gündüz Ulusoy

  32. TURKEY IN RELATION TO NEW MEMBERS *Öz, The Investment Environment, The Global Competitiveness Report Turkey 2006, REF, Istanbul, November 2006 Gündüz Ulusoy

  33. EU-10 IN 1996 AND 2006 *Öz, The Investment Environment, The Global Competitiveness Report Turkey 2006, REF, Istanbul, November 2006 Gündüz Ulusoy

  34. GCI AND INNOVATION

  35. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INNOVATION SCORE AND GCI SCORE Gündüz Ulusoy

  36. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN R&D EXPENDITURE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GDP AND GCI SCORE Gündüz Ulusoy

  37. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESEARCHERS IN R&D AND GCISCORE Gündüz Ulusoy

  38. BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS INDEX (BCI)

  39. BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS INDEX Gündüz Ulusoy

  40. GCI RANK 2006 vs. BCI RANK 2006 Gündüz Ulusoy

  41. SOME OBSERVATIONS CONCERNING MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN TURKEY

  42. EMPIRICAL STUDIES OVER A DECADE • The observations and remarks following will be based on several empirical studies distributed over a decade starting in 1997. • Automotive • Cement • Electronics • White goods’ suppliers • Automotive suppliers (technology management) • Electronics (NPD capability) • Machine building • Innovation in manufacturing industries (2004,2006) • Innovation models in manufacturing and innovation networks Gündüz Ulusoy

  43. RANKING OF PRACTICES IN RELATION TO THEIR IMPACT ON THE SUCCESS OF THE COMPANY* *Ulusoy, Moving Forward, TÜSİAD Report, Istanbul, 2003. Ulusoy, İkiz, "Benchmarking best manufacturing practices: a study into four sectors of the Turkish industry", International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 21, 1020-1043, 2001. Gündüz Ulusoy

  44. RANKING OF OUTCOMES IN RELATION TO THEIR IMPACT ON THE SUCCESS OF THE COMPANY* *Ulusoy, Moving Forward, TÜSİAD Report, Istanbul, 2003. Ulusoy, İkiz, "Benchmarking best manufacturing practices: a study into four sectors of the Turkish industry", International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 21, 1020-1043, 2001. Gündüz Ulusoy

  45. COMPETITIVENESS STRATEGIES FOR MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN TURKEY* • In general, the manufacturing industry in Turkey had based its competitiveness strategy on low price rather than product differentiation. • But, rapid design change and rapid new product introduction were within the first five competitive priorities of all sectors involved. • Furthermore, decreasing the new product development time was within the first five manufacturing objectives. • The manufacturing firms were fully aware that in order to survive in the market process and product quality are necessary requirements. • There were areas open to improvement in quality issues of which companies seem to be aware. Consistent quality level was designated as the highest competitive priority. *Ulusoy, Moving Forward, TÜSİAD Report, Istanbul, 2003. Ulusoy, İkiz, "Benchmarking best manufacturing practices: a study into four sectors of the Turkish industry", International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 21, 1020-1043, 2001. Gündüz Ulusoy

  46. COMPETITIVENESS STRATEGIES FOR MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN TURKEY* • In line with these observations Total Quality Management came out to be the most popular action plan. • Based on these observations we can conclude that the Turkish manufacturing industry will increase the weight of product differentiation strategy against the low cost strategy within its mixed strategy. *Ulusoy, Moving Forward, TÜSİAD Report, Istanbul, 2003. Ulusoy, İkiz, "Benchmarking best manufacturing practices: a study into four sectors of the Turkish industry", International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 21, 1020-1043, 2001. Gündüz Ulusoy

  47. COMPETITIVENESS STRATEGIES FOR MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN TURKEY • The agenda of the Turkish manufacturing industry is to be able to manufacture quality goods at low cost and to increase their market share. • Firms also aim at introducing products with high added value in order to increase their profitability. • These strategies are consistent with the increasing emphasis on product differentiation and the increasing importance of new product development. Gündüz Ulusoy

  48. COMPETITIVENESS • At the macro level, competitiveness in Turkey suffers from three weaknesses: • Informal economy • Macroeconomic and political instability • Governmental ownership • Nonoperational profits were high. Gündüz Ulusoy

  49. A TWO-TRACK ECONOMY* Labor Productivity USA=100 *Baser, Farrel, Meen, Turkey’s quest for stable growth, McKinsey Quarterly, 74-95, Special Edition, 2003 Gündüz Ulusoy

  50. PRODUCTIVITY* • In the 11 sectors covered the labor productivity has been found to be at the 40% level of the labor productivity in USA. • In manufacturing sector labor productivity is 64% of that in USA. • In steel production labor productivity is 76% of that in USA. • In service sector labor productivity is 33% of that in USA. • In infrastructure services sector labor productivity is 48% of that in USA. • In cell phone services sector labor productivity is 109% of that in USA. • In electricity distribution sector labor productivity is 21% of that in USA. *Baser, Farrel, Meen, Turkey’s quest for stable growth, McKinsey Quarterly, 74-95, Special Edition, 2003 Kaynak: MGI Gündüz Ulusoy