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Hazardous household waste and the polluter pays principle – Implementation in Flanders RTP 33399, Kocaeli (Turkey), 14-15.07.2009. Christof Delatter Association of Flemish Cities and Municipalities (Vereniging van Vlaamse Steden en Gemeenten – VVSG) www.vvsg.be Tel. +32 2 211.55.99

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Hazardous household waste and the polluter pays principle – Implementation in FlandersRTP 33399, Kocaeli (Turkey), 14-15.07.2009

Christof Delatter

Association of Flemish Cities and Municipalities

(Vereniging van Vlaamse Steden en Gemeenten – VVSG)


Tel. +32 2 211.55.99

E-mail: christof.delatter@vvsg.be

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This Presentation

  • Results Flemish policy

  • Competences

  • Hazardous household waste:

    • What

    • Historical approach

    • Collection and treatment

    • Experiences

    • Actual status

  • Financing

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Flemish waste management: Results (1)

  • Very successful separate collection:

    • results at the top

    • doorstep collection of lots of recyclables

    • bring system (>340 civic amenity sites)

    • Very high recycling rate

  • 2002: first year in which the growth in waste production stopped

  • Nevertheless: amongst lowest cost for final disposal of waste

  • Since 2007: no more landfilling of household waste in Flanders

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Competences (2)

  • Regions: considerable political autonomy

  • Region fully responsible for environmental matters (incl. spatial planning), except:

    • Nuclear waste

    • Waste transit through Belgium

    • Product Policy

    • European and International Policy (joint decisionmaking)

  • Cooperation mechanisms between regions

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Competences (3)

  • One public waste authorityonFlemish (regional) level, established in 1981 (OVAM), responsibleforworking out regional waste management plans

  • Provinces: verylimitedenvironmentalcompetencies

  • Municipalities are responsiblefor the collection and treatment of household waste

    • Own (inter)municipal services; Tendering; Public-private partnerships

    • Producer responsibilityforcertain waste streams

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Hazardous Household Waste: what?

What?  detailed list in legislation

  • Rests of paints, inks, glues

  • Oils and fats

  • Solvents

  • Acids

  • Bases

  • Packagesthatcontainedhazardoussubstances

  • Injectionneedles

  • Cleaningproducts

  • Batteries

  • Productscontainingmercury (like fluorescent lightbulbs)

  • Mixed fraction (pesticides, cosmetics, firework, smoke detectors,…)

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Hazardous household waste: approach (1)

  • End of the 80’ies

    • Only 1/3 of local authorities had some collection of hazardous household waste on municipal sites

    • Hazardous household waste ended up in:

      • Sewers (ex. liquids)

      • Soils

      • Through residual waste to below standard landfilling or incineration

      • Small scale incineration for heating (motor oils)

    • Pollution, chemical reactions

  • 1989: pilot projects for separate collection of small hazardous household waste

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Hazardous household waste: approach (2)

  • Flemish Waste Management Plan 1991-1995

    • Hazardous Household Waste considered to be one of the priorities in the plan

    • Specific actions:

      • Obligation for municipalities to have a ‘civic amenity site’ with amongst others collection of HHW by 31.12.1992

      • Municipalities had to suggest a system for separate collection of HHW by 31.12.1991; had to implement the system before 31.12.1992

      • Municipalities were supported financially:

        • Voluntary environmental cooperation agreements: commitment to achieve a series of environmental goals in exchange for subsidies

        • Subsidies for specific investments concerning prevention and separate collection of waste

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Hazardous household waste: collection and treatment (1)

1990’ies: three collection systems were implemented

(1) Collection only at civic amenity sites

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Hazardous household waste: collection and treatment (2)

(2) Door to door with the ‘chemocar’

(3) Specific collection moments per ‘neighbourhood’

(2) And (3) often combined with (1)

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Hazardous household waste: collection and treatment (3)

  • After collection, most of the HHW was treated by Indaver NV

    • Created in 1985

    • Flemish authorities were majority shareholder

    • Approx. 20 other shareholders, mainly industrial companies producing significant quantities of industrial and/or hazardous waste

    • Indaver had to build the necessary capacities for treatment of hazardous waste

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Hazardous household waste: experiences

  • Doorstep collection

    • Veryexpensive (up to 750 euro / tonne)

    • HHW has to bepresentedpersonallyforcollectionforsecurityreasons

    • Up to 90% is collectedthroughcivicamenity sites, notthrough doorstep collection

  • 2004:

    • all civicamenity sites accept HHW

    • 87 (out of 308) municipalitiescollect in the neighbourhoods

    • 16 municipalitiesstill have doorstep collection

    • 2 municipalitiescollect ‘ondemand’

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Hazardous household waste: actual situation

  • Treatment: more competitive markets

    • Frying fats/oils: biofuel

    • Motor oil: regeneration

    • Car batteries: positieve value on the market

    • Other companies often pretreat chemical wastes for further incineration in cement kilns

    • Dedicated hazardous waste treatment

  • Flanders sold large part of shares in Indaver

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State of the art WtE Plant for 90.000 tonnes/year

15 families doing this


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Financing (1)

  • Citizen paying the municipalities:

    • In the past: all costs financed from either the general budget of from a fixed waste tax

    • Now:

      • Fixed costs financed from either the general budget or from a fixed waste tax (or mix of both), but fixed waste taxes will disappear the next years

      • Variable costs financed from a variable fee, to stimulate waste prevention and waste seperation

        = P-A-Y-T (Pay as you throw)

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Financing (2)

  • Systems for PAYT:

    • Compulsory use of a household waste bag of a given volume; sold at a certain price

    • To weigh and register the household waste container when emptied

    • To count the number of times that a container is emptied

    • Now also weighing systems on collection sites

  • Waste for disposal: average 1,3 EUR/bag; plastics: 0,25 EUR/bag; VFG: 1 EUR/bag; paper and glass: free

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Financing (3)

  • Producers paying the municipalities:

    • Packaging waste: total cost of collection, sorting and recycling + extra fee for coordination and communication

    • Other take-back responsibilities: industrial sectors will have to pay a lump sum per inhabitant per year and per ton collected on municipal civic amenity sites

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Financing (5)

  • Specific for hazardous household waste: municipalities have to accept it from the citizens free of charge…

  • Producer responsibility for (amongst others)

    • (car)batteries

    • Old medication

    • WEEE

    • Motoroils

    • Frying oils

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Producer responsibility in Flanders

  • 1994: introduction of principle of producer responsibility in our legislation

  • Shops  distributors  producers/importers – in proportion to the share on the market: REVERSE LOGISTICS

  • Individual obligation but can be organised through cooperation between producers in a ‘recognised organism’, which signs a voluntary agreement with government

  • Since 1997: decision for gradual introduction of PR for magazines and newspapers, printed publicity, batteries & accumulators, expired medicines, tyres, WEEE, motor-oil, frying fat and oil, photochemicals and agricultural plastic foil

  • Separate legislation for PR on packaging waste

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PR-Financing - General (1)

  • Who is responsible for organising, who for financing?

    • Integrated waste management

    • Transparancy

    • Market distortions

  • Use of civic amenity sites for free?

    • In Flanders: producer responsibility means that the real and total cost of collection, recycling, disposal should be integrated in the product cost

    • This includes municipal costs !

    • What is the management cost of a waste stream on a municipal civic amenity site?

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PR-Financing – General (2)

  • Civic amenity site cost calculation model

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PR-Financing - General (3)

  • Civic amenity site cost calculation model

    • Allocation based on 4 different methods: Weight (cost / tonne); Time spent on each waste stream; (equally…); Frequency of presentation (based on real data); Surface taken by each waste stream;

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PR-Financing – General (4)

  • Flemish municipalities receive lump sum based on decision by Flemish minister

    • Basis was our cost calculation model

    • Total cost is calculated and divided over all waste streams

      • Infrastructure: proportional to the surface taken

      • Personnel: allocated based on workload per waste stream and frequency with which people bring a certain waste stream to the containerpark

      • Overhead-cost of 10% is added

    • Calculation leads to:

      • Lump sum per inhabitant per year

      • Lump sum per tonne collected

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PR-Financing – General (5)

  • Compensations:

    • WEEE: 69 euro per tonne for collection on sites + 100 euro per tonne for logistics

    • Oils: (50 euro per tonne – return) + 0,05 euro per inhabitant

    • Batteries: discussions going on

    • Medication: organised ‘completely’ through the pharmacies

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  • Hazardous household waste

    • Small fraction (so expensive per tonne)

    • But might have important environmental consequences

  • Separate collection

    • Works well in integrated local system

    • Civic amenity sites

  • Specific streams

    • Financing through producer responsibility is good option

    • But then FULL COST principle !

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You are welcome !!!

  • In Flanders

    • Visit plants, projects,…

    • Share data on policy and on practical implementation methods

    • Long-term cooperation on waste management policy

  • Contact: Christof Delatter christof.delatter@vvsg.be – www.vvsg.be

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Short introduction to Flanders (1)

  • 3 Belgian regions: Flanders, Brussels, Wallonia

  • Land area Flanders: ± 13.500 km² (45% of Belgium)

  • Flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills

  • Population: just over 6 million

  • Population density: ± 440 inh./km²

  • Intense pressures from human activities: densely populated, dense transportation network, industry, intensive cattle breeding (millions of porcs, chickens, cows) and crop cultivation

  • High quantities of waste ↔ pressure on land use

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Short introduction to Flanders (2)

  • 5 provinces

  • 308 municipalities

    • Average population: ± 18.000 inh/municipality

    • Smallest municipality: 84 inhabitants

    • Largest city: 452.474 inhabitants

    • Rural municipalities as well as densely populated cities

    • All are member of VVSG