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Hazardous household waste and the polluter pays principle – Implementation in Flanders RTP 33399, Kocaeli (Turkey), 14-15.07.2009. Christof Delatter Association of Flemish Cities and Municipalities (Vereniging van Vlaamse Steden en Gemeenten – VVSG) Tel. +32 2 211.55.99

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Hazardous household waste and the polluter pays principle – Implementation in FlandersRTP 33399, Kocaeli (Turkey), 14-15.07.2009

Christof Delatter

Association of Flemish Cities and Municipalities

(Vereniging van Vlaamse Steden en Gemeenten – VVSG)

Tel. +32 2 211.55.99


this presentation
This Presentation
  • Results Flemish policy
  • Competences
  • Hazardous household waste:
    • What
    • Historical approach
    • Collection and treatment
    • Experiences
    • Actual status
  • Financing
flemish waste management results 1
Flemish waste management: Results (1)
  • Very successful separate collection:
    • results at the top
    • doorstep collection of lots of recyclables
    • bring system (>340 civic amenity sites)
    • Very high recycling rate
  • 2002: first year in which the growth in waste production stopped
  • Nevertheless: amongst lowest cost for final disposal of waste
  • Since 2007: no more landfilling of household waste in Flanders
competences 2
Competences (2)
  • Regions: considerable political autonomy
  • Region fully responsible for environmental matters (incl. spatial planning), except:
    • Nuclear waste
    • Waste transit through Belgium
    • Product Policy
    • European and International Policy (joint decisionmaking)
  • Cooperation mechanisms between regions
competences 3
Competences (3)
  • One public waste authorityonFlemish (regional) level, established in 1981 (OVAM), responsibleforworking out regional waste management plans
  • Provinces: verylimitedenvironmentalcompetencies
  • Municipalities are responsiblefor the collection and treatment of household waste
    • Own (inter)municipal services; Tendering; Public-private partnerships
    • Producer responsibilityforcertain waste streams
hazardous household waste what
Hazardous Household Waste: what?

What?  detailed list in legislation

  • Rests of paints, inks, glues
  • Oils and fats
  • Solvents
  • Acids
  • Bases
  • Packagesthatcontainedhazardoussubstances
  • Injectionneedles
  • Cleaningproducts
  • Batteries
  • Productscontainingmercury (like fluorescent lightbulbs)
  • Mixed fraction (pesticides, cosmetics, firework, smoke detectors,…)
hazardous household waste approach 1
Hazardous household waste: approach (1)
  • End of the 80’ies
    • Only 1/3 of local authorities had some collection of hazardous household waste on municipal sites
    • Hazardous household waste ended up in:
      • Sewers (ex. liquids)
      • Soils
      • Through residual waste to below standard landfilling or incineration
      • Small scale incineration for heating (motor oils)
    • Pollution, chemical reactions
  • 1989: pilot projects for separate collection of small hazardous household waste
hazardous household waste approach 2
Hazardous household waste: approach (2)
  • Flemish Waste Management Plan 1991-1995
    • Hazardous Household Waste considered to be one of the priorities in the plan
    • Specific actions:
      • Obligation for municipalities to have a ‘civic amenity site’ with amongst others collection of HHW by 31.12.1992
      • Municipalities had to suggest a system for separate collection of HHW by 31.12.1991; had to implement the system before 31.12.1992
      • Municipalities were supported financially:
        • Voluntary environmental cooperation agreements: commitment to achieve a series of environmental goals in exchange for subsidies
        • Subsidies for specific investments concerning prevention and separate collection of waste
hazardous household waste collection and treatment 1
Hazardous household waste: collection and treatment (1)

1990’ies: three collection systems were implemented

(1) Collection only at civic amenity sites

hazardous household waste collection and treatment 2
Hazardous household waste: collection and treatment (2)

(2) Door to door with the ‘chemocar’

(3) Specific collection moments per ‘neighbourhood’

(2) And (3) often combined with (1)

hazardous household waste collection and treatment 3
Hazardous household waste: collection and treatment (3)
  • After collection, most of the HHW was treated by Indaver NV
    • Created in 1985
    • Flemish authorities were majority shareholder
    • Approx. 20 other shareholders, mainly industrial companies producing significant quantities of industrial and/or hazardous waste
    • Indaver had to build the necessary capacities for treatment of hazardous waste
hazardous household waste experiences
Hazardous household waste: experiences
  • Doorstep collection
    • Veryexpensive (up to 750 euro / tonne)
    • HHW has to bepresentedpersonallyforcollectionforsecurityreasons
    • Up to 90% is collectedthroughcivicamenity sites, notthrough doorstep collection
  • 2004:
    • all civicamenity sites accept HHW
    • 87 (out of 308) municipalitiescollect in the neighbourhoods
    • 16 municipalitiesstill have doorstep collection
    • 2 municipalitiescollect ‘ondemand’
hazardous household waste actual situation19
Hazardous household waste: actual situation
  • Treatment: more competitive markets
    • Frying fats/oils: biofuel
    • Motor oil: regeneration
    • Car batteries: positieve value on the market
    • Other companies often pretreat chemical wastes for further incineration in cement kilns
    • Dedicated hazardous waste treatment
  • Flanders sold large part of shares in Indaver


State of the art WtE Plant for 90.000 tonnes/year

15 families doing this


financing 1
Financing (1)
  • Citizen paying the municipalities:
    • In the past: all costs financed from either the general budget of from a fixed waste tax
    • Now:
      • Fixed costs financed from either the general budget or from a fixed waste tax (or mix of both), but fixed waste taxes will disappear the next years
      • Variable costs financed from a variable fee, to stimulate waste prevention and waste seperation

= P-A-Y-T (Pay as you throw)

financing 2
Financing (2)
  • Systems for PAYT:
    • Compulsory use of a household waste bag of a given volume; sold at a certain price
    • To weigh and register the household waste container when emptied
    • To count the number of times that a container is emptied
    • Now also weighing systems on collection sites
  • Waste for disposal: average 1,3 EUR/bag; plastics: 0,25 EUR/bag; VFG: 1 EUR/bag; paper and glass: free
financing 3
Financing (3)
  • Producers paying the municipalities:
    • Packaging waste: total cost of collection, sorting and recycling + extra fee for coordination and communication
    • Other take-back responsibilities: industrial sectors will have to pay a lump sum per inhabitant per year and per ton collected on municipal civic amenity sites
financing 5
Financing (5)
  • Specific for hazardous household waste: municipalities have to accept it from the citizens free of charge…
  • Producer responsibility for (amongst others)
    • (car)batteries
    • Old medication
    • WEEE
    • Motoroils
    • Frying oils
producer responsibility in flanders
Producer responsibility in Flanders
  • 1994: introduction of principle of producer responsibility in our legislation
  • Shops  distributors  producers/importers – in proportion to the share on the market: REVERSE LOGISTICS
  • Individual obligation but can be organised through cooperation between producers in a ‘recognised organism’, which signs a voluntary agreement with government
  • Since 1997: decision for gradual introduction of PR for magazines and newspapers, printed publicity, batteries & accumulators, expired medicines, tyres, WEEE, motor-oil, frying fat and oil, photochemicals and agricultural plastic foil
  • Separate legislation for PR on packaging waste
pr financing general 1
PR-Financing - General (1)
  • Who is responsible for organising, who for financing?
    • Integrated waste management
    • Transparancy
    • Market distortions
  • Use of civic amenity sites for free?
    • In Flanders: producer responsibility means that the real and total cost of collection, recycling, disposal should be integrated in the product cost
    • This includes municipal costs !
    • What is the management cost of a waste stream on a municipal civic amenity site?
pr financing general 2
PR-Financing – General (2)
  • Civic amenity site cost calculation model
pr financing general 3
PR-Financing - General (3)
  • Civic amenity site cost calculation model
    • Allocation based on 4 different methods: Weight (cost / tonne); Time spent on each waste stream; (equally…); Frequency of presentation (based on real data); Surface taken by each waste stream;
pr financing general 4
PR-Financing – General (4)
  • Flemish municipalities receive lump sum based on decision by Flemish minister
    • Basis was our cost calculation model
    • Total cost is calculated and divided over all waste streams
      • Infrastructure: proportional to the surface taken
      • Personnel: allocated based on workload per waste stream and frequency with which people bring a certain waste stream to the containerpark
      • Overhead-cost of 10% is added
    • Calculation leads to:
      • Lump sum per inhabitant per year
      • Lump sum per tonne collected
pr financing general 5
PR-Financing – General (5)
  • Compensations:
    • WEEE: 69 euro per tonne for collection on sites + 100 euro per tonne for logistics
    • Oils: (50 euro per tonne – return) + 0,05 euro per inhabitant
    • Batteries: discussions going on
    • Medication: organised ‘completely’ through the pharmacies
  • Hazardous household waste
    • Small fraction (so expensive per tonne)
    • But might have important environmental consequences
  • Separate collection
    • Works well in integrated local system
    • Civic amenity sites
  • Specific streams
    • Financing through producer responsibility is good option
    • But then FULL COST principle !
you are welcome
You are welcome !!!
  • In Flanders
    • Visit plants, projects,…
    • Share data on policy and on practical implementation methods
    • Long-term cooperation on waste management policy
  • Contact: Christof Delatter –
short introduction to flanders 1
Short introduction to Flanders (1)
  • 3 Belgian regions: Flanders, Brussels, Wallonia
  • Land area Flanders: ± 13.500 km² (45% of Belgium)
  • Flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills
  • Population: just over 6 million
  • Population density: ± 440 inh./km²
  • Intense pressures from human activities: densely populated, dense transportation network, industry, intensive cattle breeding (millions of porcs, chickens, cows) and crop cultivation
  • High quantities of waste ↔ pressure on land use
short introduction to flanders 2
Short introduction to Flanders (2)
  • 5 provinces
  • 308 municipalities
    • Average population: ± 18.000 inh/municipality
    • Smallest municipality: 84 inhabitants
    • Largest city: 452.474 inhabitants
    • Rural municipalities as well as densely populated cities
    • All are member of VVSG