General Introduction • Translatability: • different in phonetics, lexicology, grammar, syntactic structures; • similar in living patterns. • Origin of translation: • Zhou Dynasty； • first recorded in West Han Dynasty; • History: 3 periods of climax • East Han Dynasty---Tang and Song Dynasty • Ming and Qing Dynasty • 5.4 period
Functions of translation: • a means of cross-linguistic, cross-cultural communication; • an instrument for transmitting culture; • a technique for improving language acquisition; • encouraging social development main
Definitions of Translation • 语言学派；交际学派；社会符号学派；文艺学派 • Cross-linguistic transformation of meaning • denotative meaning ; • connotative meaning; • collocative meaning; • contextual meaning ; • stylistic meaning; • 1. sun • 2. I want my Martini dry. • 3. An apple a day keeps a doctor away. • 4. soft music/ soft drinks
Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source- language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.( Eugene A. Nida and Charles R.Taber, 1982:12) • Some terminologies: • source language • target language/ receptor language • translator • original version • translation main
Classification of Translation • 1. Intralingual / interlingual translation • 2. Interpretation, translation, machine translation • 3. Translation of different genres( sci-tec translation, literary translation, etc) • 4. Complete translation, adapted translation, selective translation, abstract translation , etc main
Qualities for a Good Translator • 1. Good bi-lingual competence, esp. understanding and expressing • You can’t be too careful. • It is five years since he smoked. • 2. Broad knowledge • Big brother; kick bucket; • Hannibal had us for lunch, Clarice. • 3. Translation strategies, techniques • 4. Careful and conscientious attitude main
Principles of Translation • Faithfulness, expressiveness, elegance (信达雅) -----严复《天演论》(Evolution and Ethics) • Faithfulness, expressiveness, closeness (信达贴) -----刘重德《翻译十讲》 • Spiritual conformity (神似) -----傅雷 • Sublimed adaptation (化境) -----钱仲书 • Excellent translation faithfully reflects all the original passage in vocabulary, syntax, even punctuation and spelling. • faithfulness, smoothness
Faithfulness • Be faithful to the content • 1. Avoid word for word translation • 2. Avoid cultural misunderstanding • 3. Avoid the misunderstanding of idioms • Be faithful to the style
1.Avoid word for word translation • greatest compensation for wrongful imprisonment. • 1．对错误监禁的最大数额的赔偿。 • 2．最大数额的冤狱赔偿金。 • The chief criminals shall be punished without fail. • 主要罪犯绝对要受到惩罚。 • 首恶必办。 • Didn’t you go to see the film last night? • No, I didn’t. • 你昨晚没去看电影是吗？ • 是的，我没去。 main
2.Avoid cultural misunderstanding • Love me, love my dog. • Every dog has its day. • That funny gay often talks horse. • He became dissatisfied with modern life and man’s selfish wish for private wealth, so he went and joined a Hippie commune. • 出于对现代生活的不满和对人们自私的个人财富占有欲的反感，他加入了嬉皮士群居社。 main
3> Avoid the misunderstanding of idioms • You can not trust him to keep a secret, he is sure to spill the beans before long. • 切勿相信他会保守秘密，过不久他肯定会泄露于人的。 • I am sorry. I will eat my words. • 对不起，我收回我说的话。 main
Faithful to the style • formal&informal • positive/negative • humorous/ rigid • That man was so rude to me. I wouldn’t go back to that job for all the tea in China! • 那人对我太无礼了,我无论如何也不再去做那份工作了. • 那家伙对我太无礼了,八抬大轿来请,我也不去做那份工作了. • I am up to my neck in your bullshit. • 你害得我好苦。 • 你让我倒他妈的八辈子邪霉了。 main
Process of translation • 1. Understanding • 1.Understanding the meaning of diction in the context • 2.Understanding the background • 2. expressing and re-expressing • 1.Expressing • 2.Re-expressing • 3. editing
1-1.Understanding the meaning of diction in the context • A) Draw a line from A to B. • B) The ship crossed the line. • C) Cooking is more in your line than mine. • D) They were given their marriage lines after the registration. • E) She bought an overcoat lined with silk.
1-2.Understanding the background • 潺潺长江水, 悠悠远客情. 落花相与恨, 到地一无声. -----韦承庆<南行别弟> • Mournfully, mournfully rolls the long River, Saddened, ah saddened, the stranger’s breast. The flowers as they fall, his fate recall, As each flutters down in the earth to rest -----Fletcher
问题 • question, problem, trouble, point, issue • 当时我们正在长征的路上,每天行军一百多里. • We were on the Long March. Every day we marched a hundred li or more. • march—walk • <高级英汉双解词典>:march:walk as soldiers do, with regular and measured steps. • <朗曼当代英语词典>: to walk with regular,esp.forceful steps like a soldier.
The process of understanding • first reading , general reading for main idea, theme, background • second reading, careful reading for details • final reading for stylistic features, spirit
How to understand • 1)contextual analysis • The slums offered an ugly contrast to the classical grandeur of official Washington. • The baseball season opens this afternoon and I suspect that most of official Washington are out at the field, including the president and many of the members of the Cabinet. • John is now with his parents in New York; it is three years since he was a high school teacher in Washington. • She didn't attend the meeting because she wanted to. • 2)logical analysis • The old man informed us that his wife had thirteen children, one in every month of the year and one over besides. main
2-1.Expressing • Express the content and in the meantime keep the original form mainly including structure arrangement, image, figure of speech,etc. • 我从乡下跑到城里来，一转眼已经六年了。 • Six years have passed by in a flash/ in a twinkle since I came to the city from the countryside.
Keep the original content, sacrificing the form. • 有个农村叫张家庄，张家庄有个张木匠，张木匠有个好老婆，外号叫“小飞蛾”， “小飞蛾”生了个女儿叫艾艾。 • There was a village called Zhangjia Village, where lived Carpenter Zhang, who had a good wife, nicknamed little Moth, who gave birth to a girl called Ai’ ai.
Practice • Creation • 不爱红装爱武装。 • Prefer to face the powder, rather than powder the face. • 生当做人杰，死亦为鬼雄。 • Be man of men, be soul of souls. • 无边落木萧萧下。 • Boundless forest sheds leaves shower by shower.
2-2. Re-expressing • 1. Improving Chinese readability • Cotton feels soft. • 棉花使人感到柔软。——棉花摸上去柔软。 • Even if you go there, there wouldn't be any result. • 即使你去了，也不会有什么结果。——你去了也是白去。 • 2. Getting rid of the bound of original words • Any person not leaving litter in this basket will be liable to a fine of ￡5. • The cathedral was built in Spanish Gothic style. • Distance from the event should make the memories less painful. • His irritation could not withstand the silent beauty of the night. • 3. Mastering some skills main
3. Editing • 对照原文，句句复审，重点查内容，注意发现和解决对原文理解上的问题。 • 脱离原文，细读译文，重点是译文文字的润色和句子结构的调整，把好译文的语言关。 • 再次对照译文，通读一遍，做进一步的检查. main
Translating Methods • Literal translation • Free translation • Transliteration
Literal Translation • In the course of translation, not alter the original sentence pattern, structure, image, figures of speech. • It takes sentences as its basic units and takes the whole text into consideration. • It strives to reproduce both the ideological content and the style of the original works. • The translation should be smooth, natural and acceptable. main
Free Translation • Translate the content, without paying attention to the formal correspondence and the translation should be smooth, natural and acceptable. • It is a supplementary means to mainly convey the meaning and spirit of the original without having to reproduce its sentence patterns or figures of speech, images, etc.
Literal or Free Translation? • Valuable left in full view can be open invitation to theft. • 直译：把贵重物品放在显眼处，等于是给小偷发请帖。 • 意译：应妥善保管贵重物品，以防被盗。 • A gift is the key to open the door closed against. • 直译：礼物是打开把你关在外的房门的钥匙。 • 意译：大门把你关在外，礼物送到门自开。 • Every life has its roses and thorns. • 直译：每个人的一生都既有玫瑰，又有荆棘。 • 意译：人生总是有苦有乐，甘苦参半。
It means killing 2 birds with one stone. • Don’t teach your grandmother to suck eggs. • Never offer to teach a fish to swim. • Don’t display your axe at Lu Ban’s door. • Hitler was armed to the teeth when he lunched WWII. • Don’t shed crocodile tears. • There is no pot so ugly it can’t find a lid. • Barbara was born with a silver spoon in her mouth. • Cast pearls before swine. 对牛弹琴。
Transliteration • 1. Pronunciation • Yin, Yang, logic, Gongfu, Taichi, kowtou • 2. Names and places with special meaning and implication • typhoon, model, hacker • 3. Similar meaning and similar pronunciation for trademarks or brand names • Kodak; Pentium; Apple; Cadillac; Haier; Xerox • 4. Abbreviations , acronyms (international practice) • Gallup Poll; OPEC main
Eight Skills of Translation • 1. Diction • 2. Amplification • 3. Omission • 4. Repetition • 5. Conversion • 6. Restructuring • 7. Negation • 8. Division main
Definition (D) of Translation (T) • T means the conversion of an expression (E) from one language (L) into another. To say it plainly, T is an art to reproduce the exact idea of the author by means of a L different from the original. From the D of T, we know that the original thought of the E must be kept as far as possible, & nothing can be added to or taken away from the original work. … Accuracy (A) is the 1st indispensable quality of T. The translator must cautiously stick to the author’s idea. Words selected & sentences constructed must be such as to convey (如实传达) the exact original thought. …A is to make the thought definite & exact, while Ee is to make the T vivid & attractive.