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Teachers Quality Learning & Citizenship Conversations for Positive Social Change. “ A Call for Teachers!” on World Teachers’ Day 2013 (5 October)
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Teachers Quality Learning & Citizenship Conversations for Positive Social Change
“A Call for Teachers!” on World Teachers’ Day 2013 (5 October) With International and Local Partners: UNESCO, International Labour Organization (ILO), UNDP, UNICEF and Education International (EI) – Ministries and Departments of Education & Teacher Unions Since teachers are the most powerful force for equity, access and quality education, a call for teachers means calling for quality education for all. Quality education offers hope and the promise of a better standard of living. There is no stronger foundation for lasting peace and sustainable development than a quality education provided by well trained, valued, supported and motivated teachers. Teachers’ professional knowledge and skills are the most important factor for quality education. This World Teachers’ Day, we call for teachers to receive stronger training upfront and continual professional development and support...Irina Bokova, UNESCO Director-General Why a Call for teachers? There is a huge shortage of professional, well-trained and well-supported teachers The challenge of recruiting teachers does not lie just in the numbers, but in the provision of quality teachers. Far too often teachers remain under-qualified, poorly paid and with low status.
CHALLENGES OF QUALITY & ACCESS In Pakistan learning levels of 5-16 children reveals (ASER 2012) 50% of Children in grade 5 unable to reach competencies of grade 2 ! 5.7 million children of primary age group are out of school 25 million children 5-16 years are out of school The Education Emergency persists in Pakistan - Who is taking notice? close
Reposition Teachers- beyond the clichés Ms. Ana in Peru: an empowered teacher; in the right job for the right reasons “I chose to be a teacher because I believe that education has the power to transform the society we live in. What motivates me to be a good teacher is to be an active agent in this change that is so necessary for my country, to fight against discrimination, injustice, racism, corruption, poverty. Our responsibility as teachers is enormous, and our commitment to provide quality education must be renewed every day.” Recruiting Quality Teachers with better status– Teachers to reach those most at risk of not learning Provide teachers with more and better training, more investment in resources for their schools, and better tools and data to improve education quality by assessing how much children are actually learning.
Lets Take a Stand for TEACHERS ! • A greater number of teachers are required if adequate provision of primary, secondary, higher, technical and vocational, or non-formal education is to be assured. • Teachers have a bigger role to play – what are the competencies in hand..? How can we expand them? – Teachers With Imagination & Courage; Teachers Without Frontiers • Are teachers included in key decisions of governance, management and quality learning on a formal sustained basis by the Ministries and Departments ? Or are decisions dumped on them? • Are training institutions prepared for national and global challenges – multiple literacies? • Are Teacher Unions and Associations prepared to expand their horizons –bargaining for rights – teachers’ status – child rights?
Right to Education Article 25 A AND IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS
Article 25 A – Education A Constitutional Fundamental Right Whose responsibility is Right to Education???? • The State • Teachers • Parents • Society “State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as may be determined by law”.
Status of Right to Education Acts and Ordinances- Provision for teachers- in 25 A • Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2012)-Islamabad Capital Territory • Punjab RTE - Bill is ready but not shared with Public or tabled in the Assembly : • Website of SED says : Draft for legislation under Article 25-A, has been prepared and submitted to the Law Department. This law will be placed here after getting approval.Retrieved from: http://www.schools.punjab.gov.pk/?q=new_article25a • Right to Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2013)–Sindh • Balochistan Free and Compulsory Education Ordinance (2013) • No Rules made anywhere yet.. ! The unequivocal centrality of the clauses presented by each Act needs to be recognized by all for timely action aligned to the core education mandates of teacher unions and other stakeholders
Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act as passed by the Senate (Islamabad Capital Territory); Clauses for Teachers 17. Terms and conditions of service of teachers.- • No person shall be appointed as a teacher unless he possesses the prescribed qualifications. • Where the persons having the prescribed qualifications are not available, the appropriate government may, by notification, relax the prescribed qualifications, for a period not exceeding two years: Provided that a teacher, who at the commencement of this Act, does not possess the prescribed qualifications, shall acquire such qualifications within a period of two years. 18. Duties of teachers.- • A teacher shall perform the following duties, namely:— • maintain regularity and punctuality in attending the school. • complete the curriculum and syllabi within the specified time.
Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act as passed by the Senate (Islamabad Capital Territory); Clauses for Teachers • Assess the learning abilities of every child and supplement additional instructions, if any, as required; • All round development of the child; • Building up child’s knowledge, potentiality and talent; • Adopt learning through activities, discovery and exploration in a child friendly and child-centered manner; • Make the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety and help the child to express views freely; • Hold regular meetings with parents and share with them the relevant information about the child; and • Perform such other duties as may be prescribed. • A teacher committing default in performance of duties specified in sub-section (1), shall be liable to disciplinary action under the applicable service laws.
Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act as passed by the Senate (Islamabad Capital Territory); Clauses for Teachers • Other teachers related matters.- • The appropriate Government shall ensure that the prescribed Pupil-Teacher Ratio, is maintained in each school within one year from the date of commencement of this Act. • The appointing government shall ensure that vacancies of teachers in a school shall not exceed ten per cent of the total sanctioned strength and such vacancy shall be filled within four months. • No teacher shall be deployed for any non-educational purposes other than the population census, disaster relief duties or duties relating to elections. • Every child completing his education shall be awarded a proper certificate, in such form and in such manner, as may be prescribed. • The grievances, if any, of a teacher shall immediately be redressed in such manner as may be prescribed.
Teachers Unions/Association A Formidable Organized Force Globally & Nationally – Teachers Part of the Problem but Part of a Very Big Solution • Punjab has more than .6 million teachers as members of some union / association: • Punjab Teachers Union (PTU) – 450,000 members registered – oldest (1937) for public sector teachers BS 9 to BS 19-punjabteachersunion.com/ • Primary, Elementary Teachers Association (PETA), Punjab, • Secondary School Teachers Association • Private Sector Schools Associations • Associations/Unions for Higher Education
Teachers In Pakistan Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan (2012-2013) –Table 10.8
Teachers by Province Source: Pakistan Education Statistics 2011-12
Challenge of Gender – Teachers Recruitment the case of Punjab Source: Pakistan Education Statistics 2011-12 (Table 3.2) - (Public, Other Public, Private Sector)
Public & Private Sector Institutions Source: Pakistan Education Statistics 2011-12
Professional Competencies- A Challenge ! Need a Graph or Bar chart to show the visuals – info graphics to be better here Source: Pakistan Education Statistics 2011-12
Professional Competencies- A Challenge ! Source: Pakistan Education Statistics 2011-12
Teacher Unions Networks Profiles - Not a Small Affair we need to talk more
What is the State of Learning and Presence of Teachers and Students - Evidence from - the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2012 - School TELLS 2011 (2013 underway)
Learning Levels – Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto Class 2 level text Language Learning levels for class 4 have improved by 5% since 2011 49% of Class 5 students cannot read Class 2 story
Learning Levels – Urdu (Punjab) Learning Levels (Class 5): Urdu Language Learning levels for class 4 have improved by 7% since 2011 Rural : 33%of Class 5 students cannot read Class 2 story Urban: 26%of Class 5 students cannot read Class 2 story Learning Levels (Urdu) have improved as compared to 2011.
Learning Levels (Class 5): Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto 56% 43% 65% 46% 55% 67% 36% 40%
Learning Levels – English Class 2 level text Language Learning levels for class 4 have improved by 9% since 2011 Almost 52% of the children may complete primary without learning how to read fluently in English at grade II competencies
Learning Levels – English (Punjab) Learning Levels (Class 5): English Language Learning levels for class 4 have improved by 12% since 2011 Rural : 39%of Class 5 students cannot read English sentences Urban : 26%of Class 5 students cannotread English sentences Learning Levels (English) have improved as compared to 2011.
g Learning Levels (Class 5): English 68% 47% 58% 50% 62% 61% 32% 25%
Learning Levels - Arithmetic Class 2 level Language Learning levels for class 4 & 5 have improved by 7% since 2011 Almost 56% of the children may complete class 5 without learning how to do division at grade II/III competencies
Learning Levels – Arithmetic (Punjab) Learning Levels (Class 5): Arithmetic Language Learning levels for class 4 & 5 have improved by 10% since 2011 Rural : 44%of Class 5 students cannotdo division Urban : 75%of Class 5 students cannot do division Learning Levels (Arithmetic) have improved as compared to 2011.
Learning Levels (Class 5): Arithmetic 56% 44% 44% 56% 42% 56% 34% 27%
Learning levels – Boys vs. Girls (5-16 Years) Girls continue to lag behind boys in learning levels Girls are behind boys by 9%in basic Arithmetic
Learning levels – Public vs. Private Learning Levels are better in Private schools overall • 48% children in government and 63% children in private schools in class 5 can read class 2 Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto story. • 43% of the children in Government schools and 64% of children in private schools can read English sentences.
Attendance - Students and Teachers 1 in every 5 children in government schools was absent from school Overall attendance is better in Private schools 13% and 14% teachers in private and government schools respectively were found to be absent
Attendance - Students and Teachers (Punjab) Rural: 14% children in government school and 14 % in Private schools were absent from school (More children present in Government School then Private School) Rural: Overall children attendance is better in Government schools Rural: 12% and 13% teachers in private and government schools respectively were found to be absent Urban: only 7% teachers in private and government schools were found to be absent Children attendance is better in government schools in rural Punjab.
WHAT HAS BEEN ACHIEVED?? A LOOK INTO ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND CHALLENGES FIGURES FROM SOME EVIDENCE BASED RESEARCHES…….. • ASER-2012 • Teacher Characteristics, Actions and Perceptions: What Matters for Student Achievement in Pakistan? • PRE-STEP by USAID
Collecting Deeper Evidence by ITA Research & Governance CentreTeacher Characteristics, Actions and Perceptions: What Matters for Student Achievement in Pakistan?2013 ShenilaRawal, Monazza Aslam and BaelaJamil
Background & Key Questions • Drive for UPE, access and quality. • ASER data (various years) consistently show a vast majority of pupils aged between five and sixteen years of age lacking behind in basic competencies. • Teacher quality recognised as one of the most significant institutional determinants of academic success • Improvements in teaching may be the most effective ways of raising educational quality • However, debate regarding which characteristics of teachers are important is taking place. • Key Question: what makes one teacher more effective than another? • In this paper, teacher attitudes and opinions are investigated to give a more holistic approach to researching teacher effectiveness and its impact on student learning.
Source and Methodology of Data Collection • SchoolTELLS-Pakistan survey of 120 primary schools in rural Punjab. • Survey covered three districts: Faisalabad, Mianwali and RahimYar Khan. • 20 villages from each district and two schools from each village (1 Government, 1 Private, where available) totalling sample 120 schools overall. • Each school visited once, teacher absence recorded. • Series of questionnaires – school questionnaire, teacher questionnaire, student questionnaires.
More on data…variables include Students: • Standard variables (age, gender etc.) • Children’s aspirations • Ability (Ravens test) • Private tuition • Details on their health in the last three years • Their involvement with household chores as well as in the family business. Teachers: • Teacher’s age • Qualifications • Experience • Political affiliations etc. • Information on pedagogical style and time-on-task. • Questions on teachers’ views on various aspects of the teaching profession • A teacher test aimed at evaluating the teachers’ ability to teach at the primary school level.
Key findings: Actions, skills, perceptions? • Ability to teach, subject matter knowledge and attitudes to teaching matter more than observable teacher characteristics. • Teachers’ salary not appear to significantly affect their students’ performance. • Teachers’ levels of satisfaction with their salary rates also do not significantly impact student outcomes. • Teacher’s skills matter! • The tests conducted on teachers in math and language aimed at understanding levels of teacher skills and subject. • Teachers maths scores are positively related to student outcomes.
Key findings: Attitudes, Perceptions & Competencies • Perceptions and attitudes: Teachers who are dissatisfied with the school’s facilities are also associated with poor student performance. • Those teachers who are associated with political parties and those that are active in teacher unions have a significant negative impact on student learning with low test scores than for those taught by less politically active teachers. How can the engagement be positive professionally for learning outcomes? • Teachers who are confident in their maths teaching capabilities have students who perform significantly better than those who are less confident.
Key findings: Gender biases? • Gender matching of teachers and students in Pakistan according to the findings is not of significance. • A large proportion of both male and female teachers are of the opinion that boys are more capable in maths than girls. • And more significantly a higher percentage of male teachers than female teachers are of the opinion that boys are more enthusiastic about their studies. • However, neither of these aforementioned biases appears to significantly impact on student test scores. • This suggests that although teachers in Pakistan may hold some gender biases about their pupils’ capabilities, these do not appear to impact on the results of the children they teach. Research Matters for Raising the Professional Status of Teachers
LMTF - CUE and UIS Key Recommendations A GLOBAL FRAMEWORK OF LEARNING DOMAIN • Global Paradigm Shift- calls for a shift in global focus and collection of better data on learning • Learning Competencies-calls upon education systems to offer opportunities to children and youth to master competencies in seven domains of learning • Learning Indicators for Global Tracking-a small set of learning indicators measure fundamental learning opportunities to be tracked in all countries • Supporting Countries-support is provided to countries in strengthening their assessment systems improving learning levels • Equity- Measures of access and learning, along with data on child characteristics, should be used to ensure equitable learning opportunities • Assessment as a Public Good- tools, documentation, and data made freely available for the public good • Taking Action-Stakeholders must take action and advocate for accessible, transparent systems for measuring learning.
Pre- Service or Initial Teacher Education (ITE) and In-Service or Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Some Shifts in professional development and teachers status
Pre STEP Initiative for Teacher Education in Pakistan Ground Baking Pre –Service Professional Development (2008-2013) From PTC /CT to ADE and B.Ed From vocational to professional education DOOR TOWARDS BECOMING A 21ST CENTURY TEACHER Need to create demand for the upgraded degrees and teachers licensing /certification- standards – a countrywide effort Pre STEP Supported : • 22 Pakistani universities and 75 teacher colleges to raise the level of academic standards in teacher education programs Delivered: • A new curriculum for B.Ed – ADE- shifts in content and Practicum - from teaching to learning • 1887 scholarships • 21 research grants to partner universities and apex bodies to conduct research on effective teacher preparation strategies and their implementation Teacher Licensing is the next Big Initiative and Will Elevate the Status of Teachers- We must do it!
In-service Education & Training Pre-service Education & Training Other Pedagogical Support Training Follow-Up Accountability Incentives Shifting Paradigm of Teacher Education- From In-Service Training to Continuous Professional Development New Model Adjusting Systematically to New Realities • From empty vessels to adult reflective practitioners • Constructivism and inquiry based learning • From one-off training to long term systematic training opportunities, at the local, provincial and national levels • From fragmented dislocated training, to processes in contexts and cultures that make space for in-service capacity-building opportunities addressing lifelong teacher education • From skill training, to training on content supported by school/curricular reforms • From isolated/individual efforts, to collaborative processes where support groups can be developed through mentors or District Teacher Educators and Teacher Educators • From passive participants, to thinkers, actors and key reform agents. ISO 9001 - 2008 Accreditation and Licensing Source: Kiyani – DSD 2012
Addressing Teachers’ Shortages A Total of 5.24 million teachers needed by 2015 world wide 57 million children of primary school age currently out of school 54 percent of them are girls 250 Million children are not learning Situation in Pakistan In each province/area the Education Sector Plans being developed to identify teacher shortages against targets of enrolments needed for right to education 25 A for 5-16 year olds Education needs higher allocations – Beyond the 2 percent GDP and currently even lower expenditures!