The swhisa approach to extension
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The SWHISA approach to extension:. The SWHISA approach extension:. participatory, farmer led, open-ended and interactive relationship among farm families, extension staff, agricultural researchers and other rural development agents

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The swhisa approach extension

The SWHISA approach extension:

participatory, farmer led,

open-ended and interactive relationship among farm families, extension staff, agricultural researchers and other rural development agents

The primary extension technique would be Participatory Technology Development, supplemented and supported through a variety of other modern extension methods.


Participatory technology development ptd

Participatory Technology Development (PTD)

Participatory Technology Development (PTD) is a process of developing technology that is led by farmers.

PTD differs from demonstrations as it does not involve showing a farmer a proven or recommended technology; is conducted in a participatory manner and farmers are full partners.

Conducting PTD is a learning process for everyone, with extension staff acting as facilitators.

Farmers have always been active developers of farming practices. PTD builds on, supports and encourages this capacity.

Farmers work directly with research station scientists to design and monitor trials.


The participatory technology development approach will

The Participatory Technology Development approach will:

develop appropriate technology for each site,

create farm user and local advisor (DA) ownership in the technology,

create important learning opportunities for extension staff,

provide important information needs assessment opportunities to providers of extension technical assistance and training,

provide appropriate and necessary applied research projects for concerned scientists.

demonstrate the role of research in responding to, rather than directing farmer’s activities

provide an opportunity for extension staff at all levels to learn and apply a number of additional extension techniques

immerse the three main partner institutions, CoSAERAR, BoA and ARARI in a cooperative, mutually supportive, working environment


The project will have three different areas of extension involvement

The project will have three different areas of extension involvement:

household water harvesting,

irrigated crop production, and

watershed improvement.


The swhisa approach to extension

The extension strategy requires the formation of involvement:Farmer Focus Groups and (Technology) Development Teams.

Farmer Focus Groups would be the group of farmers directly engaged with technical support staff in the design and implementation of the PTD project.

Development teams would be the group of extension, research and rural development professionals working with the farmer focus groups to carryout the PTD project.


Farmer focus group for irrigated crop production practices

Farmer Focus Group for irrigated crop production practices: involvement:

the current water user group concerned with a traditional or permanent stream diversion scheme, or the command area of a dam. The traditional water user group organization centered around an elected water “father” would likely be utilized initially. Alternatively a modern water user group could be formed.


Farmer focus group for household water harvesting structures

Farmer Focus Group for household water harvesting structures:

Each of these focus groups would consist of the householder selected for a household water harvesting structure trial, any adjacent householders also benefiting from the trial structure and/or immediate neighbors interested in the trial.


Farmer focus groups for watershed improvement practices

Farmer Focus Groups for watershed improvement practices: structures:

the farm families utilizing the watershed area of a small scale water catchment structure as well as others downstream who benefit directly from the water harvested by the catchment structure.

the farm families utilizing a site where farm level water conservation practices and small structures can make major contributions to environmental preservation and productivity. This group should include farm families utilizing sites below these areas that will also benefit from the upslope interventions.


The development teams

The Development Teams: structures:

approximately 10 persons would be formed to work with the concerned farm families in each focus group.

Project partners ARARI, BoA and CoSAERAR in collaboration with SWHISA advisors, would identify and assign appropriate regional persons from each agency to participate in the core Development Teams.

Each Woreda Administration would designate the Woreda level team members in accordance with project requirements.


Each team should include

Each team should include: structures:

TEAM LEADER: the Woreda level Agriculture Officer responsible for the technology being examined

two of the farmer representative(s) selected by the farmer focus group,

the concerned DA,

the regional officer(s) of BoA responsible for technical assistance and training to extension field staff,

the scientist of ARARI concerned with the technology being developed,

the ARARI on-farm research assistants in the Woreda,

the concerned CoSAERAR officer(s ),

the Woreda level Agriculture Officer responsible for extension activities focused on women ,

the concerned SWHISA advisors.


The swhisa approach to extension

The development team would meet (at least) three times a year at the PTD field sites.

Between meetings members of the development team based in the Woreda (ie.Woreda Agriculture officers, DAs and ARARI on-farm research assistants) would continue to work with the farmer focus group to implement the PTD project.


The first development team meeting

The first development team meeting: year at the PTD field sites.

The first meeting would introduce the team members to the selected focus group and establish the parameters of the PTD project to be undertaken.

The PTD plan would be formulated and the various responsibilities: managerial, informational, physical and financial, would be reviewed and allocated.


The second development team meeting

The second development team meeting: year at the PTD field sites.

The second meeting would convene when the PTD activity was in place and established. For example

in irrigated crop production technologies it may be desirable that the crop is well established and the initial water application completed;

for watershed management technologies small constructions or initial environmental modifications should have been completed;

for household water harvesting structures the structure should be completed and operational.

During the second meeting the project would be examined for compliance with the initial plan, any indicative changes discussed and agreed and any additional managerial, informational, physical and financial needs allocated.


The third development team meeting

The third development team meeting: year at the PTD field sites.

During this meeting

PTD results and achievements would be evaluated,

problems would be identified and reviewed, and ideas for improvements would be discussed.

A cost benefit analysis would be an important part of the evaluation procedure.

Yearly evaluations may be necessary for a period of time.

The roles, mission and organization of the development team would also be evaluated.


The lifetime of the ptd projects

The lifetime of the PTD projects year at the PTD field sites.

It is envisaged that after 2 years of structured intervention, the focus group, with the cooperation of the local DA, the designated WOA officer and periodic further advice and/or assistance from other concerned professionals, would carry on monitoring, improving and evolving their technology.