CSL 6805.01. Chapters 10, 11, 12 &13. Agenda. Chapters 10, 11, 12, 13 Experiential Group Exercises: Questioning – Compare Person-Centered Approach with Gestalt Approach; Dreams – Compare Psychoanalytic Approach with Gestalt Approach; Transactional Analysis. Course Competencies.
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Chapters 10, 11, 12 &13
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
PCA in group practice emphasizes:
Necessary and sufficient for personality changes to occur
1. Two persons are in psychological contact
2. The first, the client, is experiencing incongruency
3. The second person, the therapist, is congruent or integrated in the relationship
4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard or real caring for the client
5. The therapist experiences empathy for the client’s internal frame of reference and endeavors to communicate this to the client
6. The communication to the client is, to a minimal degree, achieved
TA Ego States or Personality Aspects
act and feel much as those who raised us.
follows rules, accepts slogans, holds opinions without thinking first of facts.
Supportive and protective toward others, offers help and guidance.
Ways of Acting in the Parent Ego State
… a frown or stern look.
… tone of voice.
… pointing of the index finger.
… arms folded as to say “what are you doing?”
… uses phrases like; “you should,” “you ought to,” “that is right!”
… words such as; sympathizing, punishing. moralizing, judging, giving orders, criticizing.
what we were when we were young.
Polite, sociable, recognizes the rights of others, adapts behavior to suit them, can resent the rights/demands of others, complies grudgingly, feels unsure about themselves, procrastinates .
Open to life, spontaneous, filled with the sense of wonder and delight, self centered, aggressive, rebellious, does not consider the consequences of feeling or actions.
Ways of Behaving in the Child Ego State
… smiling, laughing, having fun.
… tone of voice.
… crying, having tantrums, getting into trouble.
… childlike facial expressions.
… uses words/phrases like; “Wow!,” “Gosh!,” “I wish,” “I feel.”
looks at the facts and reasons - the computer in us.
… figures things out logically.
… takes responsibility for thoughts, feelings and actions.
… solves problems and makes decisions.
Ways of Behaving in the Adult Ego State
… straight forward facial expression.
… active listener, eyes blink every 3 to 5 seconds showing attention.
… speaks of probabilities.
… uses phrases like; “In my opinion,” “Based on what I have observed,” “So far the facts seem to indicate.”
• “Don’t be close”
• “Don’t think”
• “Don’t feel”
• New endings can result in a new beginning
• New beginnings allow members to think, feel, and act in revitalized ways
Different from other group approaches, CBT relies on the scientific method
1. Behavioral assessment
▪ Involves a set of procedures used to get information that will guide the development of a treatment plan
2.Precise therapeutic goals
▪ CBT focuses concretely on specific target areas of change
▪ Identifying goals determines direction of therapeutic
▪ Treatment plan is based on specified goals
▪ Members are expected to take an active role with tasks
▪ Emphasis is on evaluating effectiveness of techniques used
▪ Evaluation is an ongoing process