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CSL 6805.01. Chapters 10, 11, 12 &13. Agenda. Chapters 10, 11, 12, 13 Experiential Group Exercises: Questioning – Compare Person-Centered Approach with Gestalt Approach; Dreams – Compare Psychoanalytic Approach with Gestalt Approach; Transactional Analysis. Course Competencies.

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csl 6805 01

CSL 6805.01

Chapters 10, 11, 12 &13

  • Chapters 10, 11, 12, 13
  • Experiential Group Exercises: Questioning – Compare Person-Centered Approach with Gestalt Approach; Dreams – Compare Psychoanalytic Approach with Gestalt Approach; Transactional Analysis
course competencies
Course Competencies
  • Defining the origins of group counseling, including the leaders and time frames
  • Applying specific theories of practice to group counseling
  • Applying group dynamics and processes
  • Modeling appropriate group techniques for use in schools, community, and organizational settings
  • Providing and synthesizing the exchange of feedback between self and other leaders and group members
person centered group approach
Person Centered Group Approach

Carl Rogers (1902-1987)

person centered group approach1
Person-Centered Group Approach
  • The Person-Centered Approach Challenges:
    • The assumption that “the group leader knows best”
    • The validity of advice, suggestion, persuasion, teaching, diagnosis, and interpretation
    • The belief that group members cannot understand and resolve their own problems without active and directive intervention of the leader
    • The focus on problems over persons
    • The necessity of using techniques to get or keep a group moving
  • Overlaps with Existentialism, but focuses on human capacities aimed at growth:
    • Love, freedom, choice, creativity, purpose, relatedness, meaning, values, self-actualization, autonomy, responsibility
  • Carl Rogers, Rollo May, Abraham Maslow, Clark Moustakas, Sidney Jourard, Fritz Perls, James Bugental
humanism key concepts
Humanism – Key Concepts
  • Self-awareness – people who are self-aware can make more life-affirming choices.
  • Phenomenological approach – understand reality from client’s perspective
  • Self-actualization - Innate process by which a person tends to grow spiritually and realize potential
  • Self-determining – although influenced by past, individuals determine who they become through choice
  • Respect for subjective experience of each person – that people are capable of acting in responsible and caring ways in interpersonal relationships
person centered approach pca
Person-Centered Approach [PCA]

PCA in group practice emphasizes:

  • Therapy as a shared journey
  • The person’s innate striving for self-actualization
  • The personal characteristics of the facilitator and the quality of the therapeutic relationships within the group
  • The facilitator’s creation of a permissive, “growth promoting” climate
  • People are capable of self-directed growth if the core conditions are present
  • Trust in the group process: Members can be trusted to move in a constructive direction
person centered approach
Person Centered Approach
  • In nondirective counseling the therapist’s realness and empathy are emphasized, and the therapeutic relationship rather than the therapist’s techniques are viewed as the central factor in facilitating change.
  • Basic trust in the client’s ability to move forward if conditions fostering growth are present
therapeutic conditions for growth
Therapeutic Conditions for Growth
  • Congruence—genuineness or realness
    • The greater the extent to which facilitators are real, the more members will change and grow
  • Unconditional positive regard and acceptance
    • Caring not contaminated by judgment
    • An attitude of receptiveness toward the subjective and experiential world of the members
  • Empathy
    • This is the ability to deeply grasp the member’s subjective world
    • Facilitator’s attitudes are more important than knowledge
congruence genuineness
Congruence & Genuineness
  • Therapist is real, genuine, integrated & authentic during therapy; human being struggling for realness
  • Therapist has no false front; match of inner & outer expression of experience
  • Therapist can openly express feelings, thoughts, reactions & attitudes present in relationships with client
unconditional positive regard
Unconditional Positive Regard
  • Therapist communicates deep & genuine caring for client as a person
  • Caring is unconditional-no evaluation or judgment of client’s feelings, thoughts or behaviors
  • Caring does not come from need of reciprocal caring of therapist by client
  • Acceptance & recognition of client’s right to have own beliefs & feelings
accurate empathic understanding
Accurate Empathic Understanding
  • Therapist understands client’s experience & feelings as revealed in interaction
  • Therapist tries to sense client’s subjective experience in here and now
  • Sense the other’s feelings as if my own
  • Capable of reflecting the experience of client back to client-encourages client to be more reflective
  • Encourages client’s own understanding & clarification of beliefs and worldviews
six core conditions
Six Core Conditions

Necessary and sufficient for personality changes to occur

1. Two persons are in psychological contact

2. The first, the client, is experiencing incongruency

3. The second person, the therapist, is congruent or integrated in the relationship

4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard or real caring for the client

5. The therapist experiences empathy for the client’s internal frame of reference and endeavors to communicate this to the client

6. The communication to the client is, to a minimal degree, achieved

process of therapy
Process of Therapy
  • Client’s communications about externals & not self
  • Client describes feelings but not recognize or “own” them personally
  • Client talks about self as an object in terms of past experiences
  • Client experiences feelings in present-just describes them with distrust & fear
  • Client experiences & expresses feelings freely in present-feelings bubble up
  • Client accepts own feelings in immediacy & richness
  • Client trusts new experiences & relates to others openly & freely
the group counselor
The Group Counselor
  • Focuses on the quality of the therapeutic relationship
  • Understands that the presence of facilitator is of the utmost importance
  • More concerned about personal qualities rather than techniques of leading a group
  • Serves as a model of a human being struggling toward greater realness
  • Is genuine, integrated, and authentic, without a false front
  • Can openly express feelings and attitudes that are present in the relationship with the group members
  • Understands the role of group counselor is that of a facilitator—using self as an instrument of change
  • Listening
  • Accepting
  • Respecting
  • Understanding
  • Responding
person centered expressive arts
Person-Centered Expressive Arts
  • Natalie Rogers
  • Principles of expressive arts therapy
    • Expressive arts as a multimodal approach to integrating mind, body, emotions, and spiritual inner resources through art forms
    • All people have the ability to be creative
    • The creative process is healing
  • Conditions that foster creativity
    • Openness to experience
    • Internal locus of evaluation
  • Some guidelines for creative expression in groups
    • Important to offer stimulating and challenging experiences
    • Essential to create a nonjudgmental and supportive climate
    • The facilitator’s “way of being” is more important than techniques used in expressive arts therapy
evaluation of pca in groups
Evaluation of PCA in Groups
  • Contributions and strengths of the approach
    • A good foundation for the initial stage of most groups
    • Value is placed on empathy and respect for members
    • Values and principles of PCA can be incorporated into many other approaches
    • This approach places prime emphasis on the group counselor as a person
    • The philosophy can be a basic part of working with culturally diverse client populations
  • Limitations of the approach
    • Many leaders want and need more structure than this approach allows
gestalt therapy
Gestalt Therapy
  • Fritz Perls (1893-1970) Germany
  • Married Laura Perls in 1930
  • US in 1946
  • Founded New York Institute of Gestalt Therapy
therapeutic goals in groups
Therapeutic Goals in Groups
  • Existential and Phenomenological—it is grounded in the member’s “here and now” experience
    • Emphasizes how each member views the world
  • Initial goal is for group members to gain awareness of what they are experiencing and doing now
    • Promotes direct experiencing rather than the abstractness of talking about situations
    • Rather than talk about a childhood trauma, the group participant is encouraged to become the hurt child
    • As members acquire present-centered awareness, significant unfinished business emerges
    • Awareness is seen as curative and growth-producing
continuum of awareness
Continuum of Awareness
  • Awareness involves staying with the moment-to-moment flow of experiencing
  • By staying with present-centered awareness, members discover how they function in the world
  • Group leaders ask “what” and “how” questions
    • What are you experiencing now?
    • How are you experiencing your anxiety in your body?
four major principles of gestalt therapy
Four Major Principles of Gestalt Therapy
  • Holism-interested in the whole person-emphasis on integration-thoughts, feelings, behaviors, body, & dreams
  • Field Theory-organism must be seen in its environment or its context as part of a constantly changing field; everything is relational, in flux, interrelated & in process
  • Figure Formation Process-tracks how some aspect of the environmental field emerges from the background and becomes a focal point of the individual’s attention
  • Organismic self-regulation-restore equilibrium or contribute to growth & change
the here and now
The Here-and-Now
  • Our “power is in the present”
    • Nothing exists except the “now”
    • The past is gone and the future has not yet arrived
    • The past is important, but only as it is related to present functioning
    • A here-and-now focus brings vitality to a group
  • For many people the power of the present is lost
    • They may focus on their past mistakes or engage in endless resolutions and plans for the future
    • The challenge is to come into closer contact with ongoing experiencing from moment to moment
unfinished business
Unfinished Business
  • Feelings about the past are unexpressed
    • These feelings are associated with distinct memories and fantasies
    • Feelings not fully experienced linger in the background and interfere with effective contact and functioning
  • Result:
    • Preoccupation, compulsive behavior, wariness, oppressive energy, and self-defeating behavior
    • Unfinished business needs to be addressed so that we can move toward health and integration
contact and disturbances to contact
Contact and Disturbances to Contact
  • CONTACT– interacting with nature and with other people without losing one’s individuality
  • DISTURBANCES TO CONTACT – the defenses we develop to prevent us from experiencing the present fully
    • Gestalt therapist focuses on disturbances to contact
    • Five contact boundary disturbances:
      • Introjection
      • Projection
      • Retroflection
      • Confluence
      • Deflection
introjection channel of resistance
Introjection-channel of resistance
  • Tendency to uncritically accept others’ beliefs and standards without assimilating them to make them congruent with who we are
  • Passively incorporate what the environment provides, spending little time on becoming clear about what we need or want
projection channel of resistance
Projection -channel of resistance
  • Disown aspects of self by assigning them to environment
  • Trouble distinguishing between inside & outside world
  • Disown attributes of self that are inconsistent with self-image & put onto other people
  • To avoid taking responsibility for our own feelings & person who we really are
  • Keeps us powerless to initiate change
deflection channel of resistance
Deflection -channel of resistance
  • Process of distraction-keep difficult to sustain sense of contact with reality
  • Overuse of humor, abstract generalizations & questions rather than statements-results in emotional depletion
  • Diminished emotional experience-by speaking through and for others
confluence channel of resistance
Confluence-channel of resistance
  • Blurring differentiation between self & environment
  • In relationships, it is a need to fit in, an absence of conflict, a belief all people feel & think same way
  • High need for acceptance, approval
  • Stay safe, never express own feelings
energy and blocks to energy
Energy and Blocks to Energy
  • Unexpressed emotions create a blockage in the body
  • Energy
    • In a Gestalt group, the focus is on energy—within individuals and with the group as a whole
    • Gestalt leaders pay attention to where energy is located, how it is used, and how it can be blocked
  • Blocks to energy
    • These blocks manifest themselves in the body in various ways
    • Members may not be aware of their energy or where it is located
    • Experiments can be designed to assist members in becoming aware of the ways they may be blocking their energy
role of gestalt leader
Role of Gestalt Leader
  • Gestalt leaders encourage members to heighten their awareness
  • Gestalt leaders focus on contact, awareness, and experimentation
  • Gestalt leaders take an active role in creating experiments to assist members in gaining awareness
  • Main role of leader is to create a safe climate that allows members to feel free in trying out new ways of being and behaving
  • Central role of the relationship:
    • Contemporary Gestalt practice emphasizes a dialogic relationship (attitude)
    • Emphasis is on presence, authentic dialogue, gentleness, and self-expression by the leader
client s process in gestalt work
Client’s Process in Gestalt Work
  • Discovery - Surprises for client
    • new realizations about self
    • novel view about old situations
    • new look at significant other
  • Accommodation
    • recognition they have a choice
    • try new behaviors in safety of group
    • expand awareness in real world
  • Assimilation
    • Learning to influence environment
    • Deal with surprises encountered daily
    • Confidence to improve and improvise
paying attention to language
Paying Attention to Language
  • To encourage self-awareness:
  • Change “It” talk to “I”-Ex. “I am frightened”, instead of “It’s frightening”.
  • Change “You” talk to “I” talk to take responsibility for feelings, opinions, etc. – “You feel hurt” to “I feel hurt”
  • Questions can put other members on the defensive.
  • Pay attention to qualifiers such as “but” because they diminish the power of statements.
  • Substitute “won’t” for “can’t” to be more honest and take responsibility.
  • Leaders should not challenge members’ language in the early stages when developing trust and safety.
therapeutic experiments
Therapeutic Experiments
  • Not a technique or exercise that is prescribed to bring about an action
  • Phenomenologically based and evolve out of what is occurring within members in the present moment
  • Members are encouraged to try new behaviors and pay attention to what they are experiencing
  • A creative happening, rather than a group exercise that the leaders might prepare prior to a group meeting
  • Internal dialogue exercise
  • Making the rounds
  • Rehearsal exercise
  • Exaggeration exercise
  • Staying with the feelings
internal dialogues
Internal Dialogues
  • Fantasy dialogues promote awareness
    • Dialogues between opposing sides of self
    • Dialogues with a parent or significant other
    • Can use the “empty chair” technique
making the rounds
Making the Rounds
  • In a group, go up to each person in the group and speak to or do something with each one
  • Goal: confronting, take risks, disclose self, try new behaviors to grow and change
rehearsal exercise
Rehearsal Exercise
  • Behavioral rehearsal: role playing a planned for new behavior with a person or people in client’s environment
  • To reduce stage fright, anxiety or fear “not do the role right”
  • Encourages spontaneity and willingness to experiment with new behaviors
exaggeration exercise
Exaggeration Exercise
  • Exaggerate movement or gesture repeatedly to intensify feelings attached to behavior to make inner meaning clearer
  • Trembling hands or feet, slouched posture, bent shoulders, clenched fists, tight frowning, facial grimacing, crossed arms
staying with the feelings
Staying with the Feelings
  • Keep client from escaping from
    • Fearful stimuli
    • Avoiding unpleasant feelings
  • Encourage to go deeper into feelings or behavior which they wish to avoid (“How are you…”)
  • Facing, confronting & experiencing feelings-to unblock and make way for new levels of growth-takes courage & pain
  • Leader avoids telling members the meaning of their gestures, postures, and body symptoms, so that members are more able to stay with what they are experiencing and eventually find their own meaning.
dream work in groups
Dream Work in Groups
  • Principles of Gestalt dream work
    • Dreams contain an existential message
    • Dreams are not interpreted by the leader
    • Members discover their own meaning of their dreams
  • Guidelines for working with a dream in a group
    • Relive the dream as though it were happening now
    • Members asked what interests them about the dream
    • Members are encouraged to become different parts of the dream
    • Create dialogue between the various aspects of the dream
    • Members suggest what they think a dream might be telling them
    • Other members can share with the person working with the dream how they are affected
  • Strengths
    • Integrates theory, practice, research
    • Shown to benefit clients with various disorders
  • Limitations
    • Inept therapists may use powerful interventions to stir up emotions and not sufficiently help clients to work through and obtain closure.
transactional analysis
Transactional Analysis
  • Eric Berne (1910-1970) Canada/Us
    • TA evolved out of Berne’s dissatisfaction with psychoanalysis
  • Mary & Robert Goulding
    • Redecision therapy – combination of TA, Gestalt, psychodrama, behavior therapy
transactional analysis1
Transactional Analysis
  • Transactional Analysis (TA) is an interactional and contractual approach to groups
  • TA is basically a psychoeducational approach to group work
  • TA is grounded on the assumption that people make present decisions based on their early experiences
  • Redecision therapy is a form of TA that assists group members in taking charge of their lives by deciding how they will change
  • The practice of TA is ideally suited to group work
  • Basic assumption of TA is that we are in charge of what we do, of the ways we think, and of how we feel
key concepts of ta
Key Concepts of TA
  • People have a basic trio of Parent, Adult, and Child (P-A-C) ego states
  • Need for strokes
  • Injunctions and counterinjunctions
  • Decisions and redecisions
  • Games
  • Basic psychological life positions
ego states
Ego States

TA Ego States or Personality Aspects




the ego states
The Ego States
  • Members are taught how to recognize in which ego state they are functioning at any given time
    • The Parent ego state
      • This ego state contains the values, morals, core beliefs, and behaviors incorporated from parents
      • This ego state can be expressed in critical or nurturing behavior
    • The Adult ego state
      • This ego state is the objective part of personality and functions as a data processor
    • The Child ego state
      • This ego state consists of feelings, impulses, and spontaneous actions
ego states1
Ego States

act and feel much as those who raised us.


Controlling Parent…

follows rules, accepts slogans, holds opinions without thinking first of facts.

Nurturing Parent…

Supportive and protective toward others, offers help and guidance.

ego states2
Ego States

Ways of Acting in the Parent Ego State

… a frown or stern look.

… tone of voice.

… pointing of the index finger.

… arms folded as to say “what are you doing?”

… uses phrases like; “you should,” “you ought to,” “that is right!”

… words such as; sympathizing, punishing. moralizing, judging, giving orders, criticizing.

ego states3
Ego States

what we were when we were young.


Adapted Child…

Polite, sociable, recognizes the rights of others, adapts behavior to suit them, can resent the rights/demands of others, complies grudgingly, feels unsure about themselves, procrastinates .

Natural Child…

Open to life, spontaneous, filled with the sense of wonder and delight, self centered, aggressive, rebellious, does not consider the consequences of feeling or actions.

ego states4
Ego States

Ways of Behaving in the Child Ego State

… smiling, laughing, having fun.

… tone of voice.

… crying, having tantrums, getting into trouble.

… childlike facial expressions.

… uses words/phrases like; “Wow!,” “Gosh!,” “I wish,” “I feel.”

ego states5
Ego States

looks at the facts and reasons - the computer in us.


… figures things out logically.

… takes responsibility for thoughts, feelings and actions.

… solves problems and makes decisions.

ego states6
Ego States

Ways of Behaving in the Adult Ego State

… straight forward facial expression.

… active listener, eyes blink every 3 to 5 seconds showing attention.

… speaks of probabilities.

… uses phrases like; “In my opinion,” “Based on what I have observed,” “So far the facts seem to indicate.”

ta group
TA Group
  • Members recognize in which of the ego states they are functioning at any given time
  • Goal is to decide whether that state or another state is more appropriate
  • Member decides if change is warranted
the need for strokes
The Need for Strokes
  • A transaction is a basic unit of communication, consisting of an exchange of strokes between 2 people
  • People need to receive physical and psychological strokes to develop a sense of trust in the world
    • Positive strokes express warmth, affection, approval, and appreciation
    • Negative strokes can be given to set limits: “Stop it right there!”
  • When group members understand how strokes (exchanges) affect their behavior, they can choose the kinds of exchanges they want
    • Members sometimes have a difficult time in asking for or receiving positive strokes
  • Injunctions are messages (many nonverbally) issued from the parent’s own Child Ego state when the parent feels threatened by a child’s behavior.
    • Some examples of injunctions which are expressions of disappointment, frustration, anxiety, unhappiness:
      • “Don’t be”

• “Don’t be close”

• “Don’t think”

• “Don’t feel”

  • In TA groups members explore the “dos” and “don’ts” by which they were trained to live
    • Once members identify the messages they have internalized, they can critically examine them to decide if they want to continue living by them
  • Messages issued from the parent’s Parent Ego state
    • Convey the shoulds, oughts & dos of parental expectations
    • “Be perfect”, “Try hard”, “Be strong”, “Please me”
  • Like injunctions, group members become aware of these shoulds, oughts, & dos and determine whether they are willing to continue living by them.
decisions and redecisions
Decisions and Redecisions
  • Group work may address the decisions made in response to parental injunctions and counterinjunctions.
  • TA group members learn to relive these early decisions and make new ones.
decisions and redecisions1
Decisions and Redecisions
  • Early decisions
    • Based on injunctions, we make early decisions
    • Early decisions had a purpose at one time, yet they may not be functional as we become adults
    • TA groups allow members to examine early decisions
  • Making new decisions
    • An assumption in TA is that whatever we decided can be redecided
    • Redecision is done emotionally, not just cognitively
    • Members can create a new ending to scenes where early decisions were made

• New endings can result in a new beginning

• New beginnings allow members to think, feel, and act in revitalized ways

decisions and redecisions2
Decisions and Redecisions
  • Group leaders assist a member to return to some critical point in childhood.
  • The group member re-experiences the scene, reliving it in the here-and-now, but with a different outcome.
  • After experiencing a redecision in the old scene, they design experiments to practice new behaviors to support the redecision.
games we play
Games We Play
  • Games—an ongoing series of transactions that ends with a negative payoff
  • Games are designed to prevent intimacy
  • The process of game playing:
    • We receive strokes
    • We maintain and defend our early decisions; find evidence to support our view of the world
    • Rackets—unpleasant feelings people experience after a game; learned in childhood & maladaptive in adulthood
    • Members can identify the games they played as children and the games they currently play
    • In a group, members can become aware of games they play and decide if they want to live more honestly and authentically
basic life positions
Basic Life Positions
  • TA identifies four basic psychological life positions that determine how people feel about themselves and how they relate to others:
    • I’m OK—You’re OK: generally game free
    • I’m OK—You’re not OK: position of people who project problems on others
    • I’m not OK—You’re OK: powerless position
    • I’m not OK—You’re not OK: futility & despair, unable to cope in the real world
life script
Life Script
  • A life script is a plan for life
    • A personal life script is an unconscious plan made in childhood
    • A life script is blueprint that tells us where we are going
  • Script analysis
    • In TA groups the members become aware of how they acquired their life script
    • Members can learn how to free themselves of self-defeating patterns
    • Group members act out portions of their life script, learn about the injunctions they accepted as children, the decisions they made in response, & the games and rackets they currently use to keep the early decisions alive.
roles of the group leader
Roles of the Group Leader
  • Explains key concepts of TA
  • Creates a climate that assists members in gaining awareness
  • Challenges members to discover and experiment with change
  • Facilitates the members in fulfilling their contracts
  • Focus is between group leader and group member, rather than interactions between group members
the therapeutic contract
The Therapeutic Contract
  • Contracts: The Structure of the Therapeutic Relationship
    • TA is a contractual form of group therapy
    • Members must have the capacity and willingness to understand and design a therapeutic contract
    • Contracts allow members to specify their goals
    • Contracts assist members in identifying how they will be different as a result of their participation in group
    • Members learn that therapy is a shared venture
    • A well-stated contract provide a basis for members to determine if they are getting what they want from the group experience
    • Contracts are not rigid and are open to revision
evaluation of ta
Evaluation of TA
  • Strengths
    • Emphasis on contracts encourage the members’ empowerment and responsibility for change.
    • Brief therapy
  • Limitations
    • Requires extensive training to use the psychodrama techniques
    • As a cognitive approach, feelings are usually not explored; genuine contact between group leader and members may not be achieved
cognitive behavioral approaches
Cognitive Behavioral Approaches
  • A set of clinical procedures relying on experimental findings of psychological research
    • Based on principles of learning that are systematically applied
      • Treatment goals are specific and measurable
    • Focusing on the member’s current problems
      • To help people change maladaptive to adaptive behaviors
    • The therapy is largely educational—teaching group members skills of self-management
key names in behavioral therapy
Key Names in Behavioral Therapy
  • Arnold Lazarus-role of therapeutic change-brief, efficient & effective psychotherapy-Multimodal Therapy
  • Albert Bandura-introduced cognition as focus of behavior therapy
  • Albert Ellis-Rational Emotive Therapy
  • Aaron Beck-Cognitive therapy for depression
  • Donald Meichenbaum-treatments for stress inoculation & self-instructional training
cognitive behavioral leaders
Cognitive Behavioral Leaders
  • Cognitive behavioral group leaders:
    • Use brief, active, directive, collaborative psychoeducational model of therapy
    • Assume that most problematic behaviors, cognitions, and emotions have been learned and can be modified by new learning
    • Assume that change can occur without insight into underlying dynamics
    • Follow the progress of group members by collecting data before, during, and after all interventions
  • Orientation of the cognitive behavioral leader:
    • May develop strategies from diverse theoretical viewpoints
    • Is both a clinician and scientist who tests the efficacy of techniques
    • Systematically adheres to specification and measurement
unique characteristics of cbt
Unique Characteristics of CBT

Different from other group approaches, CBT relies on the scientific method

1. Behavioral assessment

▪ Involves a set of procedures used to get information that will guide the development of a treatment plan

2.Precise therapeutic goals

▪ CBT focuses concretely on specific target areas of change

▪ Identifying goals determines direction of therapeutic


3.Treatment plan

▪ Treatment plan is based on specified goals

▪ Members are expected to take an active role with tasks

4.Objective evaluation

▪ Emphasis is on evaluating effectiveness of techniques used

▪ Evaluation is an ongoing process

role of cbt group leader
Role of CBT Group Leader
  • CBT groups have a detailed, concrete, problem-oriented structure
  • Leaders use short-term interventions
  • Leaders need to be skilled in brief interventions
  • CBT leader assumes the role of teacher and encourager
  • Some specific educational and therapeutic functions:
    • They draw on a wide array of techniques to help members reach goals
    • They model appropriate behaviors
    • They model active participation and collaboration
    • They provide reinforcement to members for new learning
    • They help members develop a plan for change
therapeutic techniques
Therapeutic Techniques
  • Reinforcement—specified event that strengthens the tendency for a response to be repeated (Ex. Praise)
  • Contingency contracts—behaviors to be performed are spelled out; time period; reinforcement; records
  • Modeling—clients learn through observation and imitation of leader & members (Ex. Role-play)
  • Behavior rehearsal—practicing a new behavior in a session
  • Coaching-coach sits behind member who is rehearsing
  • Homework—affords members opportunities to practice new skills in between sessions
therapeutic techniques1
Therapeutic Techniques
  • Feedback-fellow group members can provide reactions with praise & encouragement
  • Cognitive restructuring—identifying and evaluating one’s cognitions and learning to replace negative cognitions with constructive cognitions
  • Problem Solving- goal is to identify the most effective solution to a problem and provide training in cognitive & behavioral skills so group member can apply them
  • Buddy System-members assist each other in designing homework tasks and monitoring their completion
social skills training groups
Social Skills Training Groups
  • Social skills training deals with one’s ability to interact effectively with others in various social situations
  • Social skills training includes these strategies: psychoeducation, modeling, behavior rehearsal, role playing, and feedback
  • Three formats of social skills training:
    • Sheldon Rose model of structuring social skills training
      • Members role-play problem situations & assign themselves homework
    • Social effectiveness training (SET)
      • A treatment program aimed at reducing social anxiety and improving interpersonal skills; utilize modeling, behavioral rehearsal; reinforcement
    • Assertion training
      • Groups that increase members’ behavioral repertoire so they can make the choice of being assertive or not; express themselves in a way that reflects sensitivity to feelings and rights of others
cognitive therapy groups
Cognitive Therapy Groups
  • Aaron Beck
  • Cognitive therapy (CT) is an insight-focused therapy
  • CT can be applied to a wide range of groups
  • Emphasizes changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs
  • Theoretical assumptions of CT
    • People’s internal communication is accessible to introspection
    • Clients’ beliefs have highly personal meanings
    • These meanings can be discovered by the client rather than being taught or interpreted by the therapist
theory goals principles of ct
Theory, Goals & Principles of CT
  • Basic theory:
    • To understand the nature of an emotional episode or disturbance it is essential to focus on the cognitive content of an individual’s reaction to the upsetting event or stream of thoughts
  • Goals:
    • To change the way clients think by using their automatic thoughts to reach the core schemata and begin to introduce the idea of schema restructuring
  • Principles:
    • Automatic thoughts: personalized notions that are triggered by particular stimuli that lead to emotional responses
focus of cognitive therapy group
Focus of Cognitive Therapy Group
  • Emphasis is on the present and approach is time limited
  • Group sessions focused on current problems
  • Past can be brought into group session when this is relevant to understanding and resolving present problems
  • Members identify self-defeating beliefs
  • They learn to refute core beliefs and faulty thinking
    • Empirically test beliefs with Socratic dialogue, carry out homework assignments, gather data on assumptions, keep record of activities, form alternative interpretations
    • Ex. “Where is the evidence for _____________?”
  • CT in groups is task oriented
  • Members learn that most effective way to change dysfunctional emotions and behaviors is to modify inaccurate thinking
stress management training in groups
Stress Management Training in Groups
  • Donald Meichenbaum
  • Stress inoculation training (SIT) involves:
    • A combination of information giving, Socratic discussion, cognitive restructuring, problem solving, relaxation training, behavior rehearsal, self-monitoring, self-instruction, and self-reinforcement
  • Premise:
    • As a prerequisite to behavior change, clients must notice how they think, feel, and behave, and what impact they have on others
  • Basic assumption:
    • Distressing emotions and stress are typically the result of maladaptive thoughts
stress inoculation training sit
Stress Inoculation Training (SIT)
  • Three-stage model
  • Conceptual-educational: clients participate in assessment process, goals setting & self-monitoring process
  • Skills acquisition: clients learn & rehearse coping strategies (relaxation training, cognitive restructuring (Beck’s CT), problem solving, time management)
  • Application: transfer & maintenance of change – monitor homework, training is relapse prevention
multimodal group therapy
Multimodal Group Therapy
  • Arnold Lazarus
  • Stresses therapeutic flexibility and versatility since each client is unique
  • Lazarus calls for technical eclecticism
    • Drawing techniques from a variety of theoretical models without embracing any of the models
  • Multimodal therapy begins with a comprehensive assessment of all modalities
    • Employs the BASIC I.D. assessment structure
    • Lends itself to brief treatment based on assessment
  • Multimodal therapists operate on premise that breadth is more important than depth
basic i d
  • 7 areas of personality functioning which must be accounted for in a complete assessment and treatment program:
    • B=Behavior
    • A=Affective Response
    • S=Sensations
    • I=Images
    • C=Cognitions
    • I=Interpersonal Relations
    • D=Drugs, Biological Functions, Nutrition, Exercise
principles of multimodal therapy
Principles of Multimodal Therapy
  • Humans act & interact across seven areas of BASIC I.D.
  • These modalities are interconnected & must be treated as an interactive system
  • Accurate evaluation(diagnosis)is best accomplished by systematically assessing the 7 modalities & their interaction
  • Comprehensive approach to treatment involves specific correction of significant problems across the BASIC I.D.
multimodal group therapy1
Multimodal Group Therapy
  • Technical Eclecticism
    • Draws on strategies from a variety of approaches without having to embrace any of the diverse theoretical positions
    • Requires breadth, depth, & specificity
    • The larger the leader’s repertoire of methods, the more likely it is that therapy will be effective
mindfulness and acceptance
Mindfulness and Acceptance
  • Mindfulness and acceptance-based cognitive behavior therapy
    • Represents the new wave in CBT
    • In mindfulness practice, clients train themselves to focus on present experience
    • Acceptance is a process of receiving present experience without judgment, but with curiosity and striving for full awareness of the present moment
  • Major approaches of this recent development of CBT
    • Dialectical behavior therapy: aimed at helping clients to accept their emotions while changing the emotional experience
    • Mindfulness-based stress reduction: meditation, yoga
    • Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: clients suffering from depression become aware of thoughts and feelings
    • Acceptance and commitment therapy: involves fully accepting present experience and mindfully letting go of obstacles
evaluation of cognitive behavioral approaches to group
Evaluation of Cognitive Behavioral Approaches to Group
  • Strengths
    • Emphasis on education and prevention
    • Research exists that determine its efficacy
    • Demonstrated effective for a variety of issues and a variety of individuals
    • Wide range of techniques
  • Limitations
    • Leaders need a wide repertoire of skills
    • Too much structure can prevent individuals from meeting their needs