Natural and Alternative Sweeteners Martha Stone, PhD Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition Shirley Perryman, MS, RD CSU Extension Specialist Marisa Bunning, PhD CSU Extension Specialist Luann Boyer Morgan County Extension Agent SWEETENERS
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Martha Stone, PhD
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
Shirley Perryman, MS, RD
CSU Extension Specialist
Marisa Bunning, PhD
CSU Extension Specialist
Morgan County Extension Agent
Food Science/Food Safety/Nutrition & Health
Satisfying Human Taste Buds
Functions of Sugar
Plants Produce Sugars via Photosynthesis
Lactose - Least Sweet of All Sugars
High-Fructose Corn Syrup
vs. Blended Corn Syrup or Cane Sugar Syrup Added
Common Sugar Alcohols
Characteristics of Sugar Alcohols
Metabolism – The Good
Metabolism – The Bad and Ugly
6 FDA Approved Compounds
Most commonly used in: diet soft drinks, tabletop sweeteners, pudding, gelatin, yogurt, frozen desserts, powdered drinks, cakes, cookies
ADI - the amount of a food additive, expressed as mg/kg body weight, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without incurring any appreciable health risk.
Aspartame (EqualTM, NutrasweetTM, SpoonfulTM)
Substitutions may increase food safety risk
Moderate calorie consumption from
added sugar from any source.
Include moderate amounts
of low calorie sweeteners.
% Added Sugars Consumed
Regular Soft Drinks
Sugars and candy
Cakes, cookies, pies
Fruit drinks (ades/punches)
Dairy desserts/milk products (ice cream, sweetened yogurt, and sweetened milk)
Other grains (cinnamon toast and honey-nut waffles)
“Many snack foods and beverages….tend to be low in vitamins and minerals and the calories add up quickly. Also, drinking calorie-containing beverages may not make you feel full. This could tempt you to eat and drink more than you need and gain weight.”
8 oz. = 100 calories
Anderson, J., Young, L. 2008. Sugar and Sweeteners. CSU Ext Fact Sheet # 9.301
Brown, A. 2008. Understanding Food Principles & Preparation, 2nd edition. Thomson Wadsworth, Belmont, CA
Cohen, S., Arnold, L., Emerson, J. Safety of Saccharin. Agro Food Industry hi-tech, 19 (6): 24-28.
Kroger, M., Meister, K., Kava, R. 2006. Low-Calorie Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes: A Review of the Safety Issues. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and food Safety. Vol. 5 (2) 25-47.
Renwick, A. G. The intake of intense sweeteners – an update review. 2006. Food Additives and Contaminants, 23(4): 327-338
Stevia (ADA Hot Topic, Date of Release: June 2009) http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/ada/hs.xsl/nutrition_21982_ENU_HTML.htm
Position Paper from ADA: Use of Nutritive and Nonnutritive Sweeteners, 2004
AHA Scientific Statement for Dietary Sugars and Cardiovascular Health http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192627