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Human Relations & Human Resources Approach. Chapter 3 YouTube – Victoria Woodhull is back. Classical Approach Doesn’t:. Account for individual needs of employees Non-financial reward Social interaction. Human Relations Approach. Hawthorne Studies.

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human relations human resources approach

Human Relations & Human Resources Approach

Chapter 3

YouTube – Victoria Woodhull is back...

classical approach doesn t
Classical Approach Doesn’t:
  • Account for individual needs of employees
  • Non-financial reward
  • Social interaction
hawthorne studies
Hawthorne Studies
  • Influenced transitions from classical approach to human relations approach
  • Illumination Studies
      • Mayo interested in how changes in work environment would impact productivity
      • Found unexpected results
  • Hawthorne Effect
      • The more attention given to someone, the more likely their behavior will change
      • Social factors influence productivity
maslow s hierarchy of needs theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
  • Humans are motivated by basic needs
  • Five Levels-lower order needs must be met before reaching higher needs
  • Continue shift of emphasis to social interaction and managerial attention in the workplace
maslow s hierarchy of needs theory6
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
  • 1. Physiological
    • “living wage” to purchase food and clothing
  • 2. Safety
    • Free from danger (safe working conditions)
  • 3. Affiliation
    • Need to belong, social relationships with co-workers
  • 4. Esteem
    • Sense of achievement and accomplishment (internal)
    • Compensation and reward (external)
  • 5. Self-Actualization
    • Job that allows growth and creativity
mcgregor s theory x and theory y
Mcgregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
  • The assumptions managers have about the function of an organization
    • Theory X postulates the negatives about human nature (pg. 40)-Classical approach
    • Theory Y postulates the positive about human nature (pg. 41)-Human relations approach
    • These categories are not mutually exclusive
    • Principles highlight human needs and satisfaction with those needs being met
human relations approach8
Human Relations Approach
  • Need for attention
  • Social interaction
  • Individual achievement
  • If management pays attention to these, worker productivity will increase!
human resources approach10
Human Resources Approach
  • Acknowledges contributions of the classical and human relations approaches to organizing
  • Recognizes that individual labor is crucial in meeting organizational goals
  • Recognizes that individuals have feelings & needs
  • Emphasizes the employees’ cognitive contributions


recap on human relations
Recap on Human Relations
  • Lack of research and data to support relationship b/w fulfilling needs & satisfaction.
  • Hawthorne Studies served as springboard to Human Relations
  • Managers still control-fear of misuse & manipulation by management
  • Problem with relationship b/t worker satisfaction and productivity


flow chart on h r principle
Flow Chart on H.R. Principle




For Higher

Order Needs






flowchart disconnect
Flowchart Disconnect?
  • The relationship b/w “job satisfaction” & “productivity” is suspect
  • Is “satisfied” the same as “content?”
  • Are there other “things” that motivate us to be productive besides satisfaction?
  • Can you be satisfied and not productive?
  • Misuses of principles? (EX of PDM)


blake and mouton s managerial grid
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid
  • Tool for training managers in leadership styles that would enhance organizational efficiency while stimulating individual creativity
  • Leaders are most effective when they exhibit a concern for workers and production (combines classical & human relations)


blake and mouton s managerial grid15
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid
  • 5 prototype styles (pg. 52)
    • Impoverished (1,1)
    • Country Club (1,9)
    • Authority-Compliance (9,1)
    • Team (9,9)
    • Middle of the Road (5,5)


likert s system iv
Likert’s System IV
  • Focus on organizational form that can incorporate ideals of human resources
  • Motivational factors, decision making, goal setting, influence, performance
  • Four types are more or less effective in satisfying org. and individual goal
    • System I- Exploitive/Authoritative
    • System II- Benevolent/Authoritative
    • System III- Consultative
    • System IV- Participative organization
  • Linking Pin: An individual with membership in various work groups


communication implications
Communication Implications
  • Content-task, social, & innovation
  • Direction-all directions, team based, free flow from various locations (challenge is to be able to access & utilize)
  • Channel-all sorts, value on which ever channel fits best to content
  • Style-informal-congruent with “all-direction team based” communication


human resource organizations today
Human Resource Organizations Today

Learning organizations

  • Emphasize mental flexibility
  • Team learning
  • A shared vision
  • Complex thinking
  • Personal mastery
  • Emphasizes participation and dialogue in the workplace
  • Knowledge management (creation, development, application)
pfeffer s seven practices of successful orgnizations
Pfeffer’s Seven Practices of Successful Orgnizations
  • Employment security
  • Selective hiring
  • Self-managed teams & decentralization
  • Comparatively high & contingent compensation
  • Extensive training
  • Reduction of status differences
  • Sharing information
so when is hr appropriate
So, When is HR Appropriate?
  • Examples of Programs that stress team management and employee involvement
    • Japanese management systems
    • Scanlon Plan
    • TQM
    • Just in Time management


when doing hr consider this
When Doing HR, Consider This!
  • Know when team-based management is appropriate.
  • Consider the attitudes of top (and bottom) management.
  • Deal with cynicism about change.
  • Understand the nature of empowerment.
  • Facilitate the translation program (how to create a new climate within the organizational culture.