Types of Activity. Team & Individual Activities An individual activity is performed by one person. Task: Write down all the individual activities that you will cover in Standard Grade. A team activity involves you working with other people.
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Types of Activity Team & Individual Activities An individual activity is performed by one person. Task: Write down all the individual activities that you will cover in Standard Grade. A team activity involves you working with other people. Task: Write down all the team activities that you will cover in Standard Grade.
Types of Activity Competitive & Non-Competitive Activities A Competitive activity is a contest involving two or more rivals. Task: Write down all the competitive activities that you will cover in Standard Grade. A Non-Competitive activity involves performers who take part for self satisfaction and enjoyment i.e. Aerobics and Jogging
Directly & Indirectly competitive Activities ‘Directly competitive’ means that you have a direct influence on what your opponent does. ‘Indirectly competitive’ means that your performance does not affect the performance of your opponent.
A B C D E F Put the following headings in your jotter and put the letters which match these headings underneath them. TEAM ACTIVITY INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY COMPETITIVE ACTIVITY DIRECTLY COMPETITIVE INDIRECTLY COMPETITIVE
Subjective Activities Are based on how the performance looks. They can also be described as aesthetic. The result depends on the opinion of the judges. Performers competing in a subjective activity need to use their imagination and be creative.
Objective Activities Performers achieve a definite score that can be measured in some way. This could be the number of goals scored in a game, the distance achieved, the fastest time or the number of points won in a match.
A B C D E F G I H • PUT THE LETTERS DOWN THE SIDE OF YOUR JOTTER • NAME EACH ACTIVITY • 3. WRITE DOWN IF IT IS A SUBJECTIVE OR OBJECTIVE ACTIVITY • 4. WRITE DOWN THE SCORING SYSTEM USED FOR EACH ACTIVITY
Different Roles Throughout the course you will adopt different roles other than a performer • Coach • Referee • Helper • Opponent Give examples from your course when you adopted these roles, use a different activity for each role. Explain what you did.
ACTIVITIES: Equipment There are two main reasons why wearing the proper clothing, footwear or equipment is important • SAFETY • TO HELP YOUR PERFORMANCE
ACTIVITIES: Equipment SAFETY: Some activities you must wear certain items for safety e.g. leg pads Shin Guards Helmet
ACTIVITIES: Equipment Helping performance: Improvements in design and technology can help improve performance e.g. • Reducing the weight of a piece of equipment • Improving grip or friction • Reducing friction (improving slide or glide) Task: Get into groups of 4 and discuss these 3 points. Give a minimum of 2 examples for each point. E.g. Improving friction: Football, Longer studs when playing on a soft muddy park. Allows me to turn and keep my balance.
ACTIVITIES: Official/Formal & Unwritten Rules Written rules • Found in a rule book • Rules ensure that the activity is fair • Shape the way we perform in an activity E.g. in basketball you're not allowed to run with the ball in your hands. So, players have to move by dribbling the ball or by passing and then moving. • Help keep an activity safe E.g. in rugby, you can't tackle an opponent around the neck or head. Another is the 100-metre sprint, where athletes must stay in their lane. This prevents them making contact with each other at high speed.
ACTIVITIES: Official/Formal & Unwritten Rules Unwritten rules • Informal codes of conduct which you won't find in a rulebook. They say how a team or player should behave, and are sometimes called 'etiquette' (or 'sportsmanship'). These rules recognise the importance of co-operation, showing respect, and consideration for others. • In rugby, players line up to clap the opposition off of the park. • If a player is injured during a football match, it is common to see the ball put out of play by the opposition. • Many activities end with players shaking hands at the end of the game.
Rules: Shaping the Game • Rules restrict movement i.e. NETBALL: You are only allowed in certain parts of the court. • Games are usually split into halves, thirds or quarters. • Most team games start with in the middle i.e. ‘jump ball’ in basketball and ‘centre’ in football. • When an opponent breaks a rule (foul, infringement) your team receive the ball i.e. Football: penalty or free kick. • All activities have a restricted playing areas i.e. pitch, court etc. • If a player deliberately breaks the rules they can be cautioned, sin binned or sent off.
ACTIVITIES: Tactics Tactics (Game Plan) Competitors hope to make the most of their own strengths whilst exploiting the weaknesses of the opposition to win. Tactics are used both in team and individual activities. And they can be adapted during the course of a competitive situation.
ACTIVITIES: Tactics in a Team Game • Teams can use a variety of formations to utilise your teams strengths and exploit your opponents weaknesses.Tactics are you used both in attack and in defence. Lets look at basketball: • Formations: 122, 212, 131 (Attacking tactics) • Defensive Tactics: Man to Man defence & Zone
ACTIVITIES: Tactics in a Team Game • In competitive team games strategies and tactics can be improved by applying principles of play. Width in attack players spread out across the area in order to pull defenders out and create space to play through the middle. Depth in attack players spread out up and down the area in order to pull defenders out of position and create passing options and support for each other. Delay in defence a player puts pressure on the ball carrier to slow down their play. This provides more time for their team-mates to get organised. Depth in defence a second defender moves behind the defender who is pressuring the ball to support them if they're beaten.
ACTIVITIES: Tactics in a Individual Game It is important to realise that tactics are used in individual games. What tactic would you use in the following scenario? • Badminton: Opponent’s weakness is backhand • 1500m: Opponent’s strength is their sprint finish
Tactics: TASKS • Give the definition of a tactic? • Name an individual activity, what tactic did you use to try and win? • Name a team activity, what tactic did you use to try and win? • Name an individual activity, what skills are needed in this activity for your tactics to be effective? • Name a team activity, what skills are needed in this activity for your tactics to be effective? • Why would you consider changing your tactics during the course of a competitive situation? Once you have completed the questions. Take a double page of your jotter and put TACTICS in the centre. Now draw a mind map with everything you know about Tactics.
TACTICS: Physical Qualities To fulfil a particular role in an activity, we require different qualities. Physical qualities can dictate the role we take. E.g. • A goal-shooter in netball needs height. • A prop forward in rugby needs strength. • To perform successfully in gymnastics you need flexibility. • Many sports require a level of skill. Choose two team and two individual activities. Explain what physical qualities you need to do well in that activity?
Look closely at the following performers. What Physical qualities does each of activities require? (Some activities will have more than one)
Physical Qualities: Body Shape Many activities have their own characteristic body shape. In other words certain body shapes are suited to specific activities. ENDOMORPH MESOMORPH ECTOMORPH
Draw a table with three columns. Put the following headings in the top of each column; MESOMORPH, ENDOMORPH & ECTOMORPH. Look closely at the following performers. Place each one on the table.
TACTICS: Personal Qualities Personal qualities may also have an affect on the roles we take. They relate to our character and how we treat other people. E.g. • Team members need to be able to co-operate with others to make tactics work. • Some individuals are highly motivated. • Depending on the situation, a player may be chosen for their ability to concentrate under pressure. Think of a team you know that don’t have the best players but seem to do well. Why is this the case?
POINTS TO REMEMBER • Tactics will depend on your skill level, strengths and weaknesses (physical & personal) • Tactics will depend on your opponents strengths and weaknesses • Tactics will adapt and change depending on the situation, i.e. defending a lead. • Realise specific positions needs specificqualities for tactics to be effective • Tactics will be used in defence and attack • TACTICS ARE DEPENDANT ON THE SKILL LEVEL AVAILABLE
Creativity All movement can be analysed in terms of weight, time, flow and space. This is the case for both individual and team activities. Creativity can make the difference between winning and losing. Weight – The degree of power Firm movement Fine touch Time – How quickly an action is performed Sudden Sustained Flow – The way in which one action links to the next Free Bound Space – ‘Where’ the action takes place
Creativity: Individual Activities Creativity is paramount in subjective activities as performance is judged on weight, time, flow & space. Activity: Gymnastics Weight – The degree of power Firm movement Fine touch How you control your movements. The greater the control the higher the points total. Soft, light, firm, delicate, strong, heavy
Creativity: Individual Activities Activity: Gymnastics Time – How quickly an action is performed Sudden Sustained Some movements should be sudden/quick like a head spring. Others should be held/sustained like a balance. Fast, held, quick, sustained
Creativity: Individual Activities Activity: Gymnastics Flow – The way in which one action links to another Free Bound A sequence of movements should flow together and not be stopping and starting all the time. Smooth, jerky, fluent, stopping
Creativity: Individual Activities Activity: Gymnastics Space – ‘Where’ the action takes place A forward somersault. The technique could be fine, however, the higher you are in the air, the better it looks and the more time it allows for you to land on your feet. If you don’t go high enough it will make it difficult to land on your feet. High, sideways, low, wide, deep
Creativity: Team Activities Creativity is also paramount in objective activities. Activity: Football (Attacking) Weight – The degree of power Firm movement Fine touch • The weight of pass to create a goal scoring opportunity. • The power of the shot needed to beat the goal keeper. Soft, light, firm, delicate, strong, heavy
Creativity: Team Activities Activity: Football (Attacking) Time – How quickly an action is performed Sudden Sustained • The speed of controlling the ball. • Holding up play to lay off a pass or shoot at goal. Fast, held, quick, sustained
Creativity: Team Activities Activity: Football (Attacking) Flow – The way in which one action links to another Free Bound • Passing moves flow together to create openings and chances for your team. • When a winger drifts past opponents as if they weren’t there. Smooth, jerky, fluent, drift, stopping
Creativity: Team Activities Activity: Football (Attacking) Space – ‘Where’ the action takes place • Passing movements create space for team mates to use. • Making runs off the ball to create space for team mates. • Creating an angle for the shot. High, sideways, low, wide, deep
Creativity: Team Activities (Defensive) Activity: Football (Defensive) Weight – The degree of power Firm movement Fine touch • The weight of the tackle needed to win the ball back. • The power required to clear the ball to safety. Soft, light, firm, delicate, strong, heavy
Creativity: Team Activities (Defensive) Activity: Football (Defensive) Time – How quickly an action is performed Sudden Sustained • Timing of a tackle • Holding an attacker up while waiting on support • As a defensive unit, timing of catching opponents offside
Creativity: Team Activities (Defensive) Activity: Football (Defensive) Flow – The way in which one action links to another Free Bound • Team mates work together to mark opponents and try to win the ball back. Smooth, jerky, fluent, drift, stopping
Creativity: Team Activities (Defensive) Activity: Football (Defensive) Space – ‘Where’ the action takes place • Narrowing opponents space by ‘showing’ them towards team mates or to the sides of the pitch.
CREATIVITY TASK Pick TWO different activity from your standard grade your course. Describe how you were creative in each activity. REMEMBER TO USE: WEIGHT TIME FLOW SPACE
ADAPTATION Activities can be adapted in many ways. The intention in making any of the changes to activities is that your skilldevelopment can benefit from the changes.
ADAPTATION • Give examples of how you would adapt both individual and Team activities using all of the examples on the previous page. What is the benefit of the adaptation you have made? E.g.Basketball limit the sides to 3 v 3. Players get more touches of the ball, thus giving them a chance to improve their skills. Badminton increase the amount of players 1 v 2. I played against 2 players to work on trying to improve my smash. I had to be accurate or my smash would be returned.
CONDITIONED GAMES Sometimes the normal rules of an activity can be changed in order to make some important points clearer. This is sometimes referred to as a conditioned game. The condition should help you practise in a game setting the skills and technique which you have developed in practice.
CONDITIONED GAMES Example Lay-up practice in Basketball. During the game 4 points could be given to a team if they score with a lay-up. This would encourage players to try and use what they developed during their practice in a game situation.
CONDUCT & BEHAVIOUR Draw this diagram. Put an activity of your choice in the centre. Using the examples of good conduct & behaviour on the previous slide, relate these specifically to your activity. Choose 6 examples.