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Asbestos NESHAP Inspection and Safety Procedures Course. Chapter 2 Asbestos-Containing Materials. Version 2012.1. Topics. Brief discussion of historical asbestos use What is asbestos?. History of Asbestos Use. Asbestos has been used for thousands of years

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Chapter 2 Asbestos-Containing Materials

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Asbestos NESHAP Inspection

and Safety Procedures Course

Chapter 2

Asbestos-Containing Materials

Version 2012.1

  • Brief discussion of historical asbestos use
  • What is asbestos?
history of asbestos use
History of Asbestos Use
  • Asbestos has been used for thousands of years
  • Principal use was in woven materials until the 1800s
  • 1850s – First commercial production
  • 1870s – Large deposits discovered in Canada
  • 1940s – 1970s – Greatest use in U.S.
history of asbestos use cont
History of Asbestos Use(Cont.)
  • More than 3,000 products have contained asbestos
  • Asbestos products are still legally used
  • Major ongoing challenges in managing asbestos
    • Naturally occurring sources
    • Workplace
geological information
Geological Information
  • What is asbestos?
    • A naturally occurring fibrous mineral
    • 6 varieties of asbestos currently regulated
varieties of asbestos
Varieties of Asbestos


Serpentine Group

Amphibole Group

Serpentine (Chrysotile)

Cummingtonite-Grunerite (Amosite)

Riebeckite (Crocidolite)



commonly used asbestos products
Commonly Used Asbestos Products
  • Most commonly used ACM products in the US currently:
    • Roofing materials (mainly flashing & cements)
    • Gaskets
    • Friction products
other marketed asbestos products
Other marketed asbestos products
  • Asbestos-cement products
  • Asbestos clothing
  • Pipeline wrap (typically asphaltic)
  • Flooring materials
  • Caulks/putties/mastics (glues)
  • On rare occasions banned materials like pipe insulation are imported and installed
where is asbestos found
Where is Asbestos Found?
  • Naturally occurring fibrous mineral
  • Mined from the ground like coal or iron ore
  • Was once mined all over the world, including the US, Australia, Canada, China, South Africa, and the former USSR
  • No longer mined in the US
  • Still mined in Canada, China, and a number African countries
asbestos mine canada
Asbestos Mine – Canada

Asbestos Milling Plant

use of asbestos
Use of Asbestos
  • Civilizations have found many uses for asbestos since early history
  • Manufacturing of asbestos containing products still occurs in many parts of the world

Ancient oil lamp

demolition renovation

Demolition & Renovation

Regulation of asbestos began in the early 1970s

asbestos types
Asbestos Types
  • Chrysotile - most common - white
  • Amosite - less common - brown
  • Crocidolite - rare - blue
  • Other types - remolite, actinolite, anthophyllite are sometimes found as contaminants with other minerals such as talc and vermiculite
chrysotile asbestos
Chrysotile Asbestos

White Asbestos

amosite fibers
Amosite Fibers

Brown Asbestos

crocidolite fibers
Crocidolite Fibers

Blue Asbestos

vermiculite libby montana
Vermiculite – Libby, Montana

Tremolite Fibers


Source: U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, Denver, Colorado.

asbestos material categories
Asbestos Material Categories
  • Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) >1%
  • Surfacing Materials (SM) such as fireproofing or decorative textured ceilings
  • Thermal System Insulation (TSI) such as pipe and boiler insulation
  • Miscellaneous (Misc.)
misc asbestos materials
Misc. Asbestos Materials
  • Floor tile and mastics
  • Ceiling tiles
  • Roofing materials like shingles and tar
  • Wallboard joint compound
  • Gaskets and valve packing materials
  • Cement asbestos products including Transite
friable acm
Friable ACM
  • Material that, when dry, may be crumbled, pulverized or reduced to powder by hand pressure
    • Includes damaged non-friable material or non-friable material that is not kept substantially intact (OSHA)

Floor tile is considered non-friable.

But when damaged like you see in the picture it can be very friable and release asbestos.


Asbestos is a concern when it becomes airborne.

Fibers do not just “jump off” materials that contain asbestos.

They get into the air when ACM or ACM debris is disturbed.

They may then be breathed or swallowed.

surfacing material sm
Surfacing material (SM)
  • Material that is spray- or trowel-applied, generally to ceilings and structural steel
thermal system insulation tsi
Thermal System Insulation (TSI)
  • Insulation materials on systems such as:
    • boilers/steam delivery
    • chilled water
    • condensate returns
    • ductwork

If undamaged..

EPA and OSHA allow TSI to be managed in place

Undamaged TSI

miscellaneous materials
Miscellaneous Materials
  • A broad spectrum of ACM’s that do not fall into the categories of surfacing materials or thermal system insulation.

Resilient Floor Coverings (RFC)

Floor Tiles, Linoleums, and Associated Mastics


Resilient Floor Coverings (RFC)

Floor Tiles, Linoleums, and Associated Mastics


Asbestos Cement Board

The most commonly produced ACM worldwide today.


Asbestos cement pipe in good condition. Non-friable.

Also a very commonly produced ACM worldwide.


Roofing Materials

Roofing materials (flashing, cements, felts, and coatings) may STILL contain asbestos materials in new construction