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The Industrial Revolution began in the English textile industry and spread to New England in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s One of the important developments was Eli Whitney’s use of interchangeable parts (this impacted other mass production) Another invention was Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin –which increased cotton production and increased the need for slavery The Industrial Revolution and the Cotton Gin (SSUSH7a)
Reform Movements (SSUSH7c & 8a) • Temperance Movement – abolish alcohol (Women in particular supported this movement) • Abolitionism—abolishment of slavery 1. William Lloyd Garrison– The Liberator (a leading abolitionist publication) 2. Frederick Douglass—former slave who wrote an autobiography widely read • Public Education—Increase in voters mandated the need for publicly funded education –(Horace Mann was a leader of this reform movement)
Seneca FallsConvention (1848) Women met to demand equal rights after being silenced at abolition rallies by men Draft Seneca Falls Declaration –(a Declaration of Independence for women) Leaders: Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton Women’s Suffrage (SSUSH7d)
Andrew Jackson’s Election in 1828 was helped by many states dropping property requirements for white male voters He also insisted on opening up the Party Convention to avoid “Caucus Politics” -- He was first Presidential Candidate from the “west” --Insisted on Nationalism over state’s rights ideology Jacksonian Democracy (SSUSH7e)
When tariff reached nearly 45% with the passage of the 1828 “Tariff of Abominations” South Carolina declared it nullified (that is, not enforced in the state) and threatened to secede Led by John C. Calhoun President Andrew Jackson threatened to send in troops and impose marshall law The Crisis was averted when a compromise tariff was passed in 1833 The Nullification Crisis(1832) (SSUSH8c)
After gaining independence from Mexico in 1836,Texas was annexed in 1845 Border disputes with Mexico began the Mexican War A provisions bill passed by the House of Representatives called the Wilmot Proviso banned slavery in territory acquired after the War with Mexico The Mexican War (SSUSH8d)
California admitted as a Free State Popular Sovereignty--Utah and New Mexico territories decide about slavery Fugitive Slave Act– escaped slaves could be captured and returned without due process and whites who aided escape could be prosecuted. Slave Trade abolished in District of Columbia The Compromise of 1850 (SSUSH8e)
The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) (SSUSH9a) • Stephen Douglas pushed the Kansas-Nebraska Act through Congress despite the criticism from Northern congressmen that the bill violated the Missouri Compromise. • Since popular sovereignty would decide whether slavery would be allowed in Kansas, violence broke out between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in what came to be known as “Bleeding Kansas”. • Pro-slavery forces attacked anti-slavery settlers in Lawrence and John Brown and his followers took revenge on the pro-slavery settlement in Pottawatamie Creek.
The Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) Supreme Court case proved to be a dividing point for the North and South Chief Justice Roger Taney’s ruling that slaves had no legal rights as property He also ruled that Congress could not forbid Slavery in any part of the Territories. Roger Taney The Dred Scott Case (1857) Dred Scott
John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry was an attempt to spark a slavery uprising. Robert E. Lee led a detachment of Marines to capture John Brown and his followers. The trial of John Brown led to intense opposite reaction in the North and South. Brown was hailed as a martyr by many in the North, while he was denounced in the South Fear of more attempts at slave uprisings led to forming militias that eventually became the Confederate Army. John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry (1859)
His success in the western campaign and victories at Shiloh and Vicksburg led to his promotion to commander of all Union armies by Lincoln in March of 1864. After his promotion, while he took on Robert E. Lee in Virginia—defeating him at Appomattox. Union Leaders (SSUSH9c)Ulysses S. Grant
He played an important role in Grant's victory of Vicksburg. When Grant was given overall command, Sherman was given command of all of the Western Forces, amounting to over 100,000 men. He went on to capture Atlanta. He marched with his forces 80 KM wide, and used "scorch-earth tactics" during his famous march to the sea on November 16 to the December 22, 1864. His forces raped and pillaged the country side until the capture of Savannah William Tecumseh Sherman
Perhaps the most brilliant military tactician in the war and his leadership of the Confederate Army. His soldiers followed him dutifully until he was forced to surrender to Grant at Appomattox –with the Confederacy in full retreat. Confederate LeadersRobert E. Lee
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson was a brilliant field commander under Robert E. Lee for the Confederacy. He had taught military strategy at the Virginia Military Institute prior to the Civil War. While out on patrol inspecting the front lines at Chancelorsville, Jackson left from one point and returned to his command at another—approaching from the front. He troops mistook his patrol for the enemy and fired—killing him. Stonewall Jackson
Jefferson Davis was a graduate of West Point and served in the army before becoming a planter. He served as a Senator from Mississippi before resigning when Mississippi seceded from the Union. He was elected President of the Confederacy. Although he was initially successful in mobilizing the Confederacy for war—he was unable to maintain the balance of military necessity and political will to keep the Confederacy from collapsing Jefferson Davis
Vicksburg One of the last major Confederate holdouts for control of the Mississippi river was Vicksburg. The siege of Vicksburg lasted two months until on July 4th, 1863—virtually starving to death and holed up in caves from the constant barrage of artillery from General Grant—the Confederates surrendered. Important Battles of the Civil War(SSUSH9d)
At the same time as the siege of Vicksburg was coming to a close, the 3 day battle of Gettysburg was fought in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. This proved to be the most decisive battle of the Civil War and also the costliest. Casualties totaled 23,000 for the Union and 28,000 for the Confederacy. The most famous maneuver of the battle was a suicide charge ordered by Lee and under the command of General Pickett. “Pickett’s Charge” resulted in Confederate soldiers being slaughtered in an open field charge into heavy gun and artillery fire. Gettysburg
The Battle of Atlanta was a long campaign for the control of Georgia by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman. It began with a surging victory out of Tennessee at Lookout Mountain in November of 1863. Union forces pushed the Confederate Army back to Atlanta in September of 1864 and then began a “March to the Sea” to Savannah Battle of Atlanta
Emancipation Proclamation—1863 (SSUSH9e) • During the course of the war, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation —freeing slaves in the states that had already seceded from the Union (it did not apply to slaves in border states). This caused many slaves to join Union Armies in Confederate states under attack and diverted more resources from the Confederate War effort to recapture fleeing slaves.