Grade Nine Science Space Unit
What can we see in the sky? • What are some things that we can see in the sky?
Something that people have noticed and documented throughout time is that there are patterns in what we see in the sky. • Constellations • North Star • Moons • Planets
Star Constellations • Groups of stars that seem to form shapes and patterns are called constellations. • Some stars look as though they are close together when some are really much farther from Earth than others. • Constellations have been used for thousands of years as calendars, timekeepers and direction finders for travellers.
The solar system consists of our sun and all the objects that travel around it. • Planets and moons are nonluminous. They do not emit their own light. We can see them in the sky only when the light from the Sun reflects off them towards Earth.
Only 5 of the planets in our solar system can actually be seen with an unaided eye: Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and Mercury.
How big is the universe • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zr7wNQw12l8
Earth’s Rotation • The Earth rotates (spins) on an axis. • It takes 24 hours to do one rotation around its axis. • This motion causes most stars, sun and moon to appear to rise in the east and set in the west. • The Earth’s axis is an imaginary line that connects the North Pole to the South Pole.
http://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.htmlhttp://axiomsun.com/home/video/time_lapse_showing_earths_rotation.html • http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/10000-the-moon-tides-video.htm
Earth’s Revolution • The Earth’s Revolution is the motion of one object travelling around another. • It takes Earth one year to travel and revolve in a circle around the sun. • This allows us to see different stars and constellations during different seasons. • The angle of the Earth’s axis and the Earth’s Revolution causes the different seasons.
What sound does the Earth make • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AVHXMLDvWA&feature=related
Sound of the Sun • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pGwDdTZBAEY&feature=related
Hubble Telescope • Part 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SpkrVw_E6Nw&feature=related Part 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=upXTZE57Z5U&feature=related
Part 3 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xt9Bvc8s_d0&feature=related • Part 4 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1_9gsFcKh9I&feature=related
Part 5 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gnCvHnlNT7c&feature=related Part 6 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PwkW76jR1w&feature=related
Part 7 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fqYshf-jc7U&feature=related Part 8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=23MXsnpC-5Y&feature=related
Pictures from the Hubble • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_Fs8oIdD7o&feature=fvw Hubble Deep Field • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcBV-cXVWFw
Parallel Universe • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XmyrE9I8HNg • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=42-BpCivYJU&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=no_fOg9KNP4&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BhB8EQPjC8c&feature=related
Universe Mysteries • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U3skOSgFS6A&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=06aw81kS53I&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_DPbkegBGo&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9VoxMwYC_U4&feature=related
How big is the sun • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I34FNr_peUk&feature=related
What is the Universe? • What things do we consider to be in the Universe? The universe is everything that exists, including all matter and energy everywhere.
The Solar System • What planets make up our solar system? • (In order from the sun) , Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (dwarf planet).
The planets revolve around the Sun in paths called orbits. • The orbits of most planets are nearly circular, with the Sun at the center of each orbit. • The period of time for one revolution around the sun is called one orbital period. • The earth’s orbital period is about 365 days. • The earth’s rotation around its axis once every 24h causes our day and night cycle.
The order from biggest planet to smallest is as follows. • The largest planet is Jupiter. It is followed by Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury, and finally, tiny Pluto (a dwarf planet). Jupiter is so big that all the other planets could fit inside it.
The Inner vs. Outer Planets • The inner planets (those planets that orbit close to the sun) are different from the Outer planets (those planets that orbit farther from the sun). • The inner planets are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. They are relatively small, composed mostly of rock, and have few or no moons.
The outer planets include: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (a dwarf planet). They are mostly huge, mostly gaseous, ringed, and have many moons (again, the exception is Pluto, the dwarf planet, which is small, rocky, and has one large moon plus two tiny ones).
Exploring the Solar System: Where Exactly Are We? • http://personal.nbnet.nb.ca/hartt/Solar%20system/sun.htm
The planets of the solar system are made up of different combinations of chemical elements which is why no two planets are the same. • Scientists have determined that throughout the solar system there are four common elements: hydrogen, helium, oxygen and carbon.
These common elements are found under high pressure on the Sun and on the four largest planets.
Probes to the Planets • A space probe is an unpiloted spacecraft sent to explore parts of the solar system beyond Earth. • The probe collects information and transmits it back to Earth.
Mercury • Closest planet to the Sun. • Recieves 10 times the amount of sunlight than Earth giving it 400 degrees celsius daytime temperatures. • It has no atmosphere to trap heat so nighttime temperatures fall to –180 degrees celsius. • Has craters all over planet.
Venus • Has a thick atmosphere that can reflect sunlight. • Brightest planet in the sky. • Second planet from the Sun. • Atmosphere is mainly made of carbon dioxide. This gas acts like the glass of a greenhouse, keeping the surface temperatures high enough to melt lead. • Venus is hard to explore because of its thick atmosphere.
Earth • Third planet from the Sun. • Atmosphere mainly contains nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapour. • There is also a small amount of ozone that filters out some of the Sun’s radiation but lets enough through for life on Earth. • Water covers 70% of Earth.
Mars • Fourth planet from the Sun. • Called the Red Planet because of the reddish color of its soil. • Space Probe, Pathfinder, landed on Mars in 1997 and provided us with first hand photos of the planet. • Evidence that Mars once had volcanoes, glaciers, and floods of water.