Health and Illness in White Europeans 75% of Continental United States Population
Ethnic Diversity1820-2000 • Dutch 1.6% • English 8.7% • French 3% • *German 15.2% • Irish 10.9% • Italian 5.6% • Polish 3.2% • Russian7% • Scotch 3.2% • Scandinavian 3.0%
Tribes A Group of People Sharing Customs, Languages and Territory Imparts Identity Identity Effects Choosing
Domains of Culture • Heritage, legacy • Environmental control- nature. God • Biologic variation – skin color, metabolism • Social organization- family size, birth, death • Communication – verbal non verbal, eye contact
Cultural Phenomenon • Communication • Rapid assimilation of English some language of origin used at home • Eye contact • Encouraged, used to communicate • Touch • Neutral to encouraged • Physical space • Uses intimate and personal zones • Time • Future orientation, use of clocks, watches
Religious Affiliations • Christians • Anglican, http://www.ecusa.anglican.org/welcome • Protestants: Lutherans, Methodists, Quakers • http://www.lcms.org/ , http://www.elca.org/ • Baptist, http://www.utm.edu/martinarea/fbc/bfm.html • Agnostics/Atheist's http://www.agnostic.org/ • Jews: http://ucsu.colorado.edu/~jsu/launcher.html • Muslim: http://www.islam-guide.com/frm-ch1-1-c.htm
Scripture Based Religions • Philosphy, Intellectualism, Argument • Torah, old testament • New Testament • Koran
- Introduction- Genesis- Exodus- Leviticus- Numbers- Deuteronomy- Joshua- Judges- Ruth 1_Samuel- 2_Samuel - 1_Kings- 2_Kings- 1_Chronicles- 2_Chronicles- Ezra- Nehemiah- Esther- Job- Psalms Proverbs- Ecclesiastes- Song_of_Songs- Isaiah- Jeremiah- Lamentations- Ezekiel- Daniel- Hosea- Joel- Amos- Obadiah- Jonah- Micah- Nahum- Habakkuk- Zephaniah- Haggai- Zechariah- Malachi OLD Testament(Torah)History of the Jewish People • -
What Do Jews Believe? • G-d exists, G-d is one and unique, G-d is spirit, G-d is eternal • Prayer is to be directed to G-d alone and to no other, G-D expects, accepts sacrifices • The words of the prophets are true • Moses's prophecies are true, and Moses was the greatest of the prophets • The Written Torah (first 5 books of the Bible) and Oral Torah (teachings now contained in the Talmud and other writings) are divine
What Do Jews Believe? Con’t • There will be no other Torah, bible, inspired readings • G-d knows the thoughts and deeds of men • G-d will reward the good and punish the wicked • The Messiah will come • The dead will be resurrected
Essence of Judaism • That which is hateful to the do not do to another, go study the Torah. (Hillel) • Seek G_D in all things, live by the laws of righteousness • Your life with demonstrate the greatness of you faith in G-D
Four Pillars of the Covenant • Relationship with creator • Community and personal • Reading the Torah • To find answers, stay in prayer • People as witness and servant • Universalistic humanitarianism • Live in the promised land and serve
Who is a Jew. • A Jew is any person whose mother was a Jew or any person who has gone through the formal process of conversion to Judaism.
Judaism Began with Abraham • Nomadic people of Israel, Jerusalem – Egypt-Spain • Makes a covenant with G-d to worship him and G-D will take care of the children of Israel • Written record 586 BC • Yehudi (Jew) – belonging to the tribe of Judah
Jewish Customs Are Designed As a Call to Holiness • Obedience, because G-d says so • Filled with grace/fill with grace. • The ability to distinguish between right and wrong, good and evil, pure and defiled, the sacred and the profane, is very important in Judaism
Kashrut- Kaf-Shin-Resh, proper/correct ways • Dietary law • Family table is an alter • Holidays - history. • Remember
Dietary Laws • Of the "Beasts of the Earth" (Which Basically Refers to Land Mammals With the Exception of Swarming Rodents), You May Eat Any Animal That Has Cloven Hooves and Chews Its Cud. Lev. 11:3; Deut. 14:6., • Pig, rabbit do not chew a cud.(treyf) • Of the things that are in the waters, you may eat anything that has fins and scales. Lev. 11:9; Deut. 14:9. • All of the birds on the forbidden list are birds of prey or scavengers
Preparation • Cannot eat anything that dies of natural causes. • Of the animals that may be eaten, the birds and mammals must be killed in accordance with Jewish law. • Blood drained, “do not eat blood” (Lev. 7:26-27; Lev. 17:10-14.). • All blood must be drained from the meat or broiled out of it before it is eaten.
Dietary Laws • Separation of meat and dairy. Do not "boil a kid in its mother's milk." (Ex. 23:19; Ex. 34:26; Deut. 14:21). • Utensils that have come into contact with meat may not be used with dairy, and vice versa. • Utensils that have come into contact with non-kosher food may not be used with kosher food. This applies only where the contact occurred while the food was hot.
Separation of Meat and Dairy • One must wait a significant amount of time between eating meat and dairy because meat and fat stick to the mouth. Opinions differ, and vary from three to six hours. • From dairy to meat, however, one need only rinse one's mouth and eat a neutral solid like bread, unless the dairy product in question is also of a type that tends to stick in the mouth.
Grape products made by non-Jews may not be eaten. • Wine was commonly used in the rituals of all ancient religions, and wine was routinely sanctified for pagan purposes while it was being processed. • it is virtually impossible to find kosher baking powder, because baking powder is made with cream of tartar, a by-product of wine making.
Foods • GEFILTE FISH • Bread stuffed fish • KUGEL • Matzah, bread, noodle pudding • Cholent • Stew • Challa • Braided sweet bread • Latkes • Potato pancakes • Donuts • Cooked in oil
Social Effects • Keeps Jewish celebrating and eating together and not with anyone else
Jewish Celebrations • Shabbat – Rest, to cease worldliness, go to the time out of time, Celebration of the completeness of G-d’s creation • Friday sundown home celebration, Saturday in the synagogue Two Shabbat candles are lit by mother /daughters (to observe and remember) Berakhah (blessing) _ Blessed art thou King of the Universe who has hallowed us by the commandments and commanded us to kindle the Sabbath lights. Shield the eyes so as not to see the result of G-d’s work The Meal – Braided Bread for the double manna given during the exodus for Egypt and wine for sweetness and joy
Festivals and fasts • Passage of time – nomadic, agricultural • Spring Passover (Pesah) • Shavuot • Fall Rosh Hashanah • Yom Kippur • Winter Hanukah • Purim • Historical events – remember, empathy for suffering
Yom Tov • Good Days • Rejoicing • Ceremonial meals, rituals • High Holy Days – work restrictions • Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur • Days of Awe,
Pesh – PassoverFestival of unleavened bread • Exodus from Egypt • The holiday marks the beginning of the harvest season • The paschal lamb that, in Temple times, was sacrificed on this holiday. • Fast then eat – fast to expierence hunger, eat as celebration of G-d’s gifts and covenant to his children • No raising of the bread < 18 mins – quick bread
Seder dinner • Two candles, sweet wine • Parsley, green vegetable- spring time • Salt water – tears • Charoset, honey, apples, nuts – motor of slaves building • Bitter herbs- horseradish- slavery • Hardboiled eggs- life follows death • Paschal lamb - offering
Shavot • End of Passover • Day of freedom • Holy day of study, reading of the ten commandments
Rosh Hashanah • September/October • Sounding of the Rams horn at sun rise (shofar) • Call to be ready • 10 days of fast sun rise to sun set • Only water and matzo • Practice self control, discipline, freely • Support the poor, pay back debts
Yom Kippur • 10th day after Rosh Hashanah • Day of atonement, repentance • Holiest Day of the year • Celebrate evening meal with sweet foods for a sweet new year
Hanukah • Festival of the temple rededication and of the miracle of the oil of the lamp • Eight lights of the menorah • 9th light is the servant • Shamash • Honey for sweetness • Donuts in oil
Purim • Book of Ester • Story of Ester saving her people the Jews • Ester married The King of Persia concealing her Judaism • Evil Haman was trying to kill the Jews • Haman was killed instead • Carnival atmosphere, celebration of loyalty and life
Symbolshttp://www.jewfaq.org/signs.htm • Mezuzah: doorpost • Tefillin: leather pouch http://www.stam.net/Tefillin.html • Tzitzit and Tallit: four cornered poncho, tzitzit, fringe
Signs and Symbolshttp://www.jewfaq.org/signs.htm • Yarmulke: skull cap • Magen David : Star of David, intertwined 3 tribes • Chai: 18, life • Hamesh Hand: Arab hand of G-d
Jewish Customs • Related to the cycle of the biblical year. • Biblical origins. • Bring salt and bread to the new house. • Pregnancy. • Fright, mother? • Evil eye – say prayer, spit (3 times). • Birth- redeem and buy back the first born son on the 31st day, 5 pieces of silver. • Do not discuss name before birth. • Named after dead relative. • Red ribbon = protection. • Circumcision.
Selected Beliefs • Matrilineal religion, patrilineal decent. • Evil eye 36% of the worlds population. • Protection. • Prayer, saying. • Correct living, symbols can protect. • Jewelry. • Color:red, black. • Sneeze: heart stops, god bless you.
Common Sayings • Shalom- hello, goodbye, peace • From your mouth to gods ears • L’chaim! – To life • Mazel Tov – good luck • Until 120 years • “The rest of the story, the whole story • God Forbid • All in favor say oy
Inspired Writings • The order as well as the number of books differs between the Jewish Bible and the Protestant and Roman Catholic • Explain mysteries, direct behavior, provide history, creed and custom • Teach reading
10 Commandments • (1) the prologue; • (2) prohibition of the worship of any deity but Yahweh, and prohibition of idolatry; • (3) prohibition of the use of the name of God for vain purposes; • (4) observance of the Sabbath; • (5) honoring of one's father and mother; • (6) prohibition of murder; • (7) prohibition of adultery; • (8) prohibition of stealing; • (9) prohibition of giving false testimony; and (10) prohibition of coveting the property or wife of one's neighbor.
Old Testament • The term Old Testament (from the Latin word for "covenant"). • "Old Covenant" that God made with Israel and the "New Covenant" established through Jesus Christ (see, for example, Hebrew 8:7). The early church believed in the continuity of history and of divine activity, it included in the Christian Bible the written records of both the Old and the New covenants.
1st-3rd Century Christians • Jews & Pagans • Mystical cult religion, incorporated blood sacrifice • Due unto others, Golden rule, altruism • Built upon Jesus fulfilling Jewish messiah prediction • Resurrection form the dead • Ravages of sin
Christianity • Based on the life of a mystical, charismatic miracle worker • Challenged the established religions, political and social order • Triune god, one in three • Power of the Holy spirit
Beliefs • There is meaning in suffering, justice, moral duty and messianic (One who is anticipated as, regarded as, or professes to be a savior or liberator.) • Individuals are responsible for social order, • Man is a social being • Laws/codes are necessary to support civilized life • Ten commandments are minimum standard
Beliefs • Equality • Community • Compassion • Golden rule • Due unto others • Peace, harmony
Catholic Catholics http://www.catholic.net/ • Old + new testament + apocrypha
The New Testament • 27 documents written between AD 50 and 150 concerning matters of belief and practice in Christian communities throughout the Mediterranean world. • Gospels; the Acts of the Apostles, a history of early Christianity; Epistles, or letters, of Paul and other writers; and an apocalypse, or book of revelation. Some books identified as letters, particularly the Book of Hebrews, are theological treatises.
Apocrypha • Biblical writings of disputed authenticity: books of the Bible that are included in the Vulgate (Latin) and Septuagint (Greek) versions of the Christian Bible, but not in the Protestant Bible or the Hebrew canon. BaruchEstherJudithMaccabees SirachTobitWisdom.