What is science?. Epistemology, rationality, ontology, causality, coheres, correspondence, objectivity, essentialism, positivism, rationalism, subjectivity, hermeneutics, …. “Science” Nobel price. What is science?. What is science?. 2. More sciences Humanities Social sciences
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Epistemology, rationality, ontology, causality, coheres, correspondence, objectivity, essentialism, positivism, rationalism, subjectivity, hermeneutics, …
2. More sciences
3. Even more sciences
Natural sciences - chemistry, biology, physic
Social science - Law, economy, sociology
Humanities - linguistic, literature, theology ...
Science is subjects at the university
Why do modern societies need science?
“keep up with the Joneses”
Aiding the accumulation of capital
Educating professional experts
It creates new knowledge for the benefit of society
Makes the world a better place
Makes mankind better
Science is a productive force (as is fields, men and machines)
Science is what is going on in scientific institutions
Institution: A system of rules, expectations and hypotheses, that govern peoples choice of activities concerning other people, things and actions
Science as institution
- People: Bureaucrats, secretaries, department managers, deans, … and a few researchers
- Activities: Control, bureaucracy, book keeping, and some research and education
- Rules expectations and hpoteses: Hierarchies, work rules, systems of merits (Ph.D., Doktor, students, assistant, associate and full professors)
Who are the users?
The people, those in power, bureaucrats, employees of the institutions, the state, the capital, business, …
Production: Reports and candidates
Conclusion: Institutions producing knowledge
Subject at the university
A productive force
(Are we ay wiser??)
We did not get any wiser – I think
We could ask – how is knowledge or how do we know?
Some of the problems of knowing
”Compare knowing and saying:
how many feet high Mont Blanc is-
how the word “game” is used-
how a clarinet sounds.
If you are surprised that one can know something and not be able to say it, you are perhaps thinking of a case like the first. Certainly not of one like the third” (Wittgenstein, 1983, p. 36).
Are there thing we can know that we cannot say?
Knowledge (In ancient Greece)
The atomic bomb named "Little Boy" was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay, a Boeing B-29 bomber, at 8:15 in the morning of August 6, 1945.
- defined on the basis of its use ( - not on the basis of the research activities)
- based on statistic (a bookkeeping principle)
- an excuse for the useless and un-interesting
- do not account for the humanities and social sciences and the technical sciences
The questions are much more important than the answers
How is science?
Are your projects scientific?