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Plant Science. Agriscience Applications. Careers in Plant Science. Objective: Investigate career opportunities related to plant science industries. Careers in Plant Science. Career Areas: Forest Careers Growing, managing and harvesting trees for wood and its by-products

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plant science

Plant Science

Agriscience Applications

careers in plant science
Careers in Plant Science

Objective:

Investigate career opportunities related to plant science industries

careers in plant science3
Careers in Plant Science
  • Career Areas:
    • Forest Careers
      • Growing, managing and harvesting trees for wood and its by-products
    • Horticulture Careers
      • Floriculture- flower production and use
      • Landscape and nursery- plants used around homes and businesses for aesthetic purposes
careers in plant science4
Careers in Plant Science
  • Forest Careers
    • Forester
      • Helps with the science of growing trees
    • Forest Ranger
      • Management of forest including fire prevention
    • Logging Foreman
      • Supervise the harvesting of trees
careers in plant science5
Careers in Plant Science
  • Floriculture (Horticulture)
    • Floral designer
    • Flower grower
    • Greenhouse manager
    • Retail florist
    • Wholesale florist
careers in plant science6
Careers in Plant Science
  • Landscaping and nursery (Horticulture)
    • Greenskeeper- cares for golf courses
    • Landscaper- installs plants
    • Landscape architect
    • Nursery operator- grows trees and shrubs
    • Turf farmer- grows turf (grass) for sale
plant parts and functions
Plant Parts and Functions

Objective:

Explain the function of major plant parts as related to plant growth and health

plants
Plants
  • Composed of many parts
    • Roots
    • Steams
    • Leaves
    • Flowers
roots
Roots
  • Often the largest part of the plant
    • Squash can have miles of roots
  • Adventitious roots
    • Found in places unexpected
    • Poison ivy
    • Mistletoe
slide10
Root

Two types of systems

  • Taproot- main root that usually grows down
    • Carrots
  • Fibrous roots- thin, hair like, and numerous
    • Grass
    • Corn
root tissue
Root Tissue
  • Root cap- outermost part of a root
    • Tough cells that penetrate the soil
    • Pushes through soil partials
roots12
Roots
  • Area of cell division
    • Allows roots to grow longer
    • New cell replace worn away cells
  • Area of cell elongation
    • Between the root cap and the plan base
    • Cells become longer
    • Cells become specialized
roots13
Roots
  • Xylem
    • Carries water and nutrients to the upper portion of the plant
  • Phloem
    • Pipeline
    • Carries food to the roots
    • Food is stored in the roots
roots14
Roots

Areas of cell maturation

  • Where cells mature
  • Root hairs emerge
    • Develop on the surface of the root
    • Absorb water and nutrients
    • Damaged easily
    • Cannot be replaced
stems
Stems
  • Support leaves, flowers, fruit
  • Types of stems:
    • Woody
    • Herbaceous
  • Other stems:
    • Bulbs (onions)
    • Rhizomes (wiregrass)
    • Tubers (potato)
leaves

Light

Carbon dioxide + water = sugar + oxygen

Leaves
  • Manufactures food for the plant
    • Converts sunlight into food
    • Photosynthesis
leaves17
Leaves
  • Help in the identification of plants
    • Leaf margins
  • Shape and size varies with each species
    • Simple leaves
    • Compound leaves
flowers
Flowers
  • Function is to produce seeds
  • Types of flowers
    • Perfect (both male and female)
    • Imperfect
  • Pollination
    • The union of pollen with the female part of the flower
assignment
Chlorophyll

Glucose

Respiration

Turgor

Transpiration

Pore

Macronutrient

Micronutrient

Acid

Alkaline

Chlorosis

Scorch

Assignment

Using pages 317 to 331 write a definition of the following terms in your notebook:

photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

Objective: Explore the photosynthesis process as related to growth and development of a plant

process
Process
  • Light energy is connected to chemical energy
    • Chloroplast contains chlorophyll
    • Simple sugars are made (glucose)
    • Carbon dioxide is used
    • Oxygen is produced
photosynthesis23

Glucose

Oxygen

Carbon Dioxide

Water

Photosynthesis

6CO2+12H2O C6H12O2+6O2

slowing photosynthesis
Slowing Photosynthesis
  • Low Carbon dioxide
    • Greenhouse
    • Carbon dioxide generators
slowing photosynthesis25
Slowing Photosynthesis
  • Low Light
    • Dark rooms
    • Light intensity matters
  • Temperature
    • Best at 65-85 degrees Fahrenheit
    • Extreme temps can stop photosynthesis
respiration
Respiration
  • Food is used
  • Energy is released
  • Oxygen is used
  • Carbon dioxide is produced
  • Occurs in both light and dark
transpiration
Transpiration
  • Release of water vapor from the stomata
  • 90% of the water entering the roots
    • 10% is used in chemical processes
  • Functions:
    • cooling
    • transportation
    • maintaining turgor pressure
plant reproduction

Plant Reproduction

Objective: Describe flower and seed parts, including their function

plant reproduction29
Plant Reproduction
  • Two types of propagation:
    • Sexual
      • use of seed for reproducing plants
      • only way to obtain new varieties and hybrid vigor
      • often least expensive and quickest
    • Asexual
      • vegetative
      • exact duplicate
parts of the flower
Parts of the Flower
  • Stamen (male part)
    • Filament
    • Anther- manufactures pollen
    • Pollen- male sexual reproductive cell
parts of the flower31
Parts of the Flower
  • Pistil (female part)
    • Stigma- receives the pollen
    • Style- connection to the ovary
    • Ovary- contains the ovules or female reproductive cells
parts of the flower32
Parts of the Flower
  • Petals (corolla)
    • Colored part of the flower
    • Attract insects or other natural pollinators
parts of the flower33
Parts of the Flower

Pollen

Stamen (Male) Anther

Filament

Stigma

Style Pistil (Female)

Ovary

the seed
The Seed

Parts of the seed:

  • Seed Coat offers protection
  • Endosperm supplies food for the seed
  • Embryo is the young plant
germination
Germination
  • The seed starts to sprout and grow
  • Requires four environmental factors:
    • Water
    • Air
    • Light
    • Temperature
environmental factors
Environmental Factors
  • Water imbibition (absorption of water)
    • Tough seed coat
    • Scarifying seeds
  • Air is needed for respiration
    • Seeds are viable or alive
environmental factors38
Environmental Factors
  • Light
    • Some seeds need light while others do not
  • Seeds must have the right temperature to germinate
asexual propagation
Asexual Propagation
  • Cutting vegetative parts of the plant:
    • leaf cuttings
    • root cuttings
    • stem cuttings
    • layering
    • grafting
      • T-budding
    • tissue culture (micropropagation)
assignment40
Assignment

Complete the Self Evaluation on page 331 to 333 sections A to D. For section D make all “False” answers true.

plant science41
Plant Science

Objective: Analyze basic soil and media requirements for growth of agricultural crops

soil and plant media
Soil and Plant Media
  • Soil is the top layer of the earth's surface
  • Sphagunm moss
    • root growth
  • Perlite
    • volcanic glass
    • starting new plants
    • media mixes
soil and plant media43
Soil and Plant Media
  • Vermiculite
    • mineral mica-type material
    • stating plant seeds
    • cuttings
    • media mixes
soil and plant media44
Soil and Plant Media
  • Peat Moss
    • used in media mixes
soil ph

Acid

10

8

Neutral

2

5

Alkaline

7

Soil pH
  • Improper pH affects availability of nutrients
    • limits plant intake
amending soil ph
Amending soil pH

High Alkalinity

Change to acidic by adding sulfer or aluminum sulfate

amending soil ph47
Amending soil pH

High Acid

Change to more alkaline by adding lime

amending soil ph48
Amending soil pH
  • Lime is usually applied as finely ground dolomitic limestone
    • calcium
    • magnesium
fertilizers
Fertilizers

Objective: Explain nutrient requirements and soil amendments needed for growth of agricultural crops

fertilizers50
Fertilizers

Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium

Example: 10-10-10

N-P-K

fertilizers51
Fertilizers
  • Fertilizers must become soluble (liquid form) before they can be used by plants
  • Organic fertilizers
    • Manure
    • Bone meal (phosphorus)
    • Soybean meal
fertilizers52
Fertilizers
  • Organic fertilizers
    • slow acting
    • long lasting
    • lacking some primary nutrients
  • Inorganic
    • High level of nutrients
plant identification

Plant Identification

Plant ID for Agriscience

chlorophytum comosum
Chlorophytum comosum
  • COMMON NAME: Spider plant
  • FOLIAGE: arching leaves with cascading wiry stems
  • FLOWERS: small white flowers
  • ID FEATURE: many times will contain tiny plantlets at the apex of leaves
euphorbia pulcherrima
Euphorbia pulcherrima
  • COMMON NAME: Poinsettia
  • FORM: shrub
  • FOLIAGE: large alternate leaves with or without teeth on the margin
  • FLOWER: cup-shaped flowers in a cluster above the showy red, pink, or creamy leaf bracts with a large yellow gland on the rim of the flower
euphorbia pulcherrima58
Euphorbia pulcherrima

Red petals are actually bracts, not flowers.

hedera helix
Hedera helix
  • COMMON NAME: English Ivy
  • FORM: a vine climbing by aerial rootlets or a prostrate groundcover
  • FOLIAGE: leaves are dark green with white veins, leathery evergreen foliage, alternate leaf arrangement, 1.5 to 4” long, juvenile leaves are 3 to 5 lobed and adult leaves are not lobed
liriope muscari
Liriope muscari
  • COMMON NAME: Liriope
  • FORM: grass-like perennial 12 to 18 inch tall clumps
  • FOLIAGE: strap-like, arching, glossy, dark green leaves (to 1” wide)
  • FLOWERS: erect, showy flower spikes with tiered whorls of dense, violet-purple flowers
nephrolepis exaltata
Nephrolepis exaltata
  • COMMON NAME: Boston Fern
  • FORM: evergreen fern, up to 5 feet tall
  • Reproduces by spores located on the bottom side of leaves
philodendron scandens
Philodendron scandens
  • COMMON NAME: Parlor Ivy
  • FORM: trailing growth form
  • FOLIAGE: Heart shaped, glossy, dark green leaves, 4” long and 3” wide
saintpaulia ionantha
Saintpaulia ionantha
  • COMMON NAME: African violet
  • FORM: from miniature varieties of 4 inches wide, to large varieties more than 15 inches wide
  • FOLIAGE: large, flat, succulent, pubescent leaves
  • FLOWERS: varies in color from pink, white, blue, red and bicolor
spathiphyllum cv
Spathiphyllum cv.
  • COMMON NAME: Peace Lily
  • FORM: perennial herb
  • FOLIAGE: leaves are basal, elongated, pointed at both ends dark green with conspicuously indented veins
  • FLOWERS: small on spadix surrounded by a white or greenish, flat or concave spathe
tradescantia zebrina
Tradescantia zebrina
  • COMMON NAME: Purple Wandering Jew
  • FORM: trailing vine-like plant, vines can grow to several feet in length
  • FOLIAGE: 2” wide and 4”long leaves that are purple with silver stripes
tradescantia zebrina80
Tradescantia zebrina

This is actually a green variety of wandering jew.

viola x wittrockiana
Viola X wittrockiana
  • COMMON NAME: pansy
  • FORM: low, bushy growing habit with a height of .25 to .75 feet tall and a width of .5 to .75 feet
  • FLOWERS: white, yellow, black, brown, lavender, purple, blue, pink, often with blotches that resemble animals’ faces